Quantification of transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus caused by an environment contaminated with secretions and excretions from infected calves

C. Bravo De Rueda, M. de Jong, P.L. Eblé, A. Dekker

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Abstract

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected animals can contaminate the environment with their secretions and excretions. To quantify the contribution of a contaminated environment to the transmission of FMDV, this study used calves that were not vaccinated and calves that were vaccinated 1 week prior to inoculation with the virus in direct and indirect contact experiments. In direct contact experiments, contact calves were exposed to inoculated calves in the same room. In indirect contact experiments, contact calves were housed in rooms that previously had held inoculated calves for three days (either from 0 to 3 or from 3 to 6 days post inoculation). Secretions and excretions from all calves were tested for the presence of FMDV by virus isolation; the results were used to quantify FMDV transmission. This was done using a generalized linear model based on a 2 route (2R, i.e. direct contact and environment) SIR model that included information on FMDV survival in the environment. The study shows that roughly 44% of transmission occurs via the environment, as indicated by the reproduction ratio ^R0 2R environment that equalled 2.0, whereas the sum of ^R0 2R contact and ^R0 2R environment equalled 4.6. Because vaccination 1 week prior to inoculation of the calves conferred protective immunity against FMDV infection, no transmission rate parameters could be estimated from the experiments with vaccinated calves. We conclude that a contaminated environment contributes considerably to the transmission of FMDV therefore that hygiene measures can play a crucial role in FMD control.
Original languageEnglish
Article number43
JournalVeterinary Research
Volume46
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus
Foot-and-mouth disease virus
excretion
secretion
calves
direct contact
indirect contact
vaccination
foot-and-mouth disease
Viruses
Infectious Disease Transmission
viruses
Virus Diseases
Hygiene
virus transmission
Reproduction
hygiene
Immunity
Linear Models
Vaccination

Keywords

  • between-pen transmission
  • classical swine-fever
  • vaccinated pigs
  • actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
  • influenza-viruses
  • dairy-cows
  • inactivation
  • campylobacter
  • formaldehyde
  • populations

Cite this

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title = "Quantification of transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus caused by an environment contaminated with secretions and excretions from infected calves",
abstract = "Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected animals can contaminate the environment with their secretions and excretions. To quantify the contribution of a contaminated environment to the transmission of FMDV, this study used calves that were not vaccinated and calves that were vaccinated 1 week prior to inoculation with the virus in direct and indirect contact experiments. In direct contact experiments, contact calves were exposed to inoculated calves in the same room. In indirect contact experiments, contact calves were housed in rooms that previously had held inoculated calves for three days (either from 0 to 3 or from 3 to 6 days post inoculation). Secretions and excretions from all calves were tested for the presence of FMDV by virus isolation; the results were used to quantify FMDV transmission. This was done using a generalized linear model based on a 2 route (2R, i.e. direct contact and environment) SIR model that included information on FMDV survival in the environment. The study shows that roughly 44{\%} of transmission occurs via the environment, as indicated by the reproduction ratio ^R0 2R environment that equalled 2.0, whereas the sum of ^R0 2R contact and ^R0 2R environment equalled 4.6. Because vaccination 1 week prior to inoculation of the calves conferred protective immunity against FMDV infection, no transmission rate parameters could be estimated from the experiments with vaccinated calves. We conclude that a contaminated environment contributes considerably to the transmission of FMDV therefore that hygiene measures can play a crucial role in FMD control.",
keywords = "between-pen transmission, classical swine-fever, vaccinated pigs, actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae, influenza-viruses, dairy-cows, inactivation, campylobacter, formaldehyde, populations",
author = "{Bravo De Rueda}, C. and {de Jong}, M. and P.L. Ebl{\'e} and A. Dekker",
year = "2015",
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language = "English",
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journal = "Veterinary Research",
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T1 - Quantification of transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus caused by an environment contaminated with secretions and excretions from infected calves

AU - Bravo De Rueda, C.

AU - de Jong, M.

AU - Eblé, P.L.

AU - Dekker, A.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected animals can contaminate the environment with their secretions and excretions. To quantify the contribution of a contaminated environment to the transmission of FMDV, this study used calves that were not vaccinated and calves that were vaccinated 1 week prior to inoculation with the virus in direct and indirect contact experiments. In direct contact experiments, contact calves were exposed to inoculated calves in the same room. In indirect contact experiments, contact calves were housed in rooms that previously had held inoculated calves for three days (either from 0 to 3 or from 3 to 6 days post inoculation). Secretions and excretions from all calves were tested for the presence of FMDV by virus isolation; the results were used to quantify FMDV transmission. This was done using a generalized linear model based on a 2 route (2R, i.e. direct contact and environment) SIR model that included information on FMDV survival in the environment. The study shows that roughly 44% of transmission occurs via the environment, as indicated by the reproduction ratio ^R0 2R environment that equalled 2.0, whereas the sum of ^R0 2R contact and ^R0 2R environment equalled 4.6. Because vaccination 1 week prior to inoculation of the calves conferred protective immunity against FMDV infection, no transmission rate parameters could be estimated from the experiments with vaccinated calves. We conclude that a contaminated environment contributes considerably to the transmission of FMDV therefore that hygiene measures can play a crucial role in FMD control.

AB - Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected animals can contaminate the environment with their secretions and excretions. To quantify the contribution of a contaminated environment to the transmission of FMDV, this study used calves that were not vaccinated and calves that were vaccinated 1 week prior to inoculation with the virus in direct and indirect contact experiments. In direct contact experiments, contact calves were exposed to inoculated calves in the same room. In indirect contact experiments, contact calves were housed in rooms that previously had held inoculated calves for three days (either from 0 to 3 or from 3 to 6 days post inoculation). Secretions and excretions from all calves were tested for the presence of FMDV by virus isolation; the results were used to quantify FMDV transmission. This was done using a generalized linear model based on a 2 route (2R, i.e. direct contact and environment) SIR model that included information on FMDV survival in the environment. The study shows that roughly 44% of transmission occurs via the environment, as indicated by the reproduction ratio ^R0 2R environment that equalled 2.0, whereas the sum of ^R0 2R contact and ^R0 2R environment equalled 4.6. Because vaccination 1 week prior to inoculation of the calves conferred protective immunity against FMDV infection, no transmission rate parameters could be estimated from the experiments with vaccinated calves. We conclude that a contaminated environment contributes considerably to the transmission of FMDV therefore that hygiene measures can play a crucial role in FMD control.

KW - between-pen transmission

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KW - vaccinated pigs

KW - actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae

KW - influenza-viruses

KW - dairy-cows

KW - inactivation

KW - campylobacter

KW - formaldehyde

KW - populations

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DO - 10.1186/s13567-015-0156-5

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JO - Veterinary Research

JF - Veterinary Research

SN - 0928-4249

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