Quantification of the emetic toxin cereulide in food products by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using synthetic cereulide as a standard

E.G. Biesta-Peters, M.W. Reij, R.H. Blaauw, P. de Veld, A. Rajkovic, M. Ehling-Schulz, T. Abee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Bacillus cereus produces the emetic toxin cereulide, a cyclic dodecadepsipeptide that can act as a K+ ionophore, dissipating the transmembrane potential in mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Because pure cereulide has not been commercially available, cereulide content in food samples has been expressed in valinomycin equivalents, a highly similar cyclic potassium ionophore that is commercially available. This research tested the biological activity of synthetic cereulide and validated its use as a standard in the quantification of cereulide contents in food samples. The synthesis route consists of 10 steps that result in a high yield of synthetic cereulide that showed biological activity in the HEp-2 cell assay and the boar sperm motility assay. The activity is different in both methods, which may be attributed to differences in K+ content of the test media used. Using cereulide or valinomycin as a standard to quantify cereulide based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the concentration determined with cereulide as a standard was on average 89.9% of the concentration determined using valinomycin as a standard. The recovery experiments using cereulide-spiked food products and acetonitrile as extraction solute showed that the LC-MS method with cereulide as a standard is a reliable and accurate method to quantify cereulide in food, because the recovery rate was close to 100% over a wide concentration range.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7466-7472
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume76
Issue number22
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Keywords

  • bacillus-cereus
  • dodecadepsipeptide
  • valinomycin
  • assay

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