Pseudomonas chloritidismutans sp. nov., a non-denitrifying chlorate-reducing bacterium

A.F.W.M. Wolterink, A.B. Jonker, S.W.M. Kengen, A.J.M. Stams

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Abstract

A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, dissimilatory chlorate-reducing bacterium, strain AW-1(T), was isolated from biomass of an anaerobic chlorate-reducing bioreactor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence showed 100␜equence similarity to Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM 50227 and 98.6␜equence similarity to the type strain of P. stutzeri (DSM 5190(T)). The species P. stutzeri possesses a high degree of genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Therefore, eight genomic groups, termed genomovars, have been proposed based upon DeltaT(m) values, which were used to evaluate the quality of the pairing within heteroduplexes formed by DNA--DNA hybridization. In this study, DNA--DNA hybridization between strain AW-1(T) and P. stutzeri strains DSM 50227 and DSM 5190(T) revealed respectively 80.5 and 56.5␜imilarity. DNA--DNA hybridization between P. stutzeri strains DSM 50227 and DSM 5190(T) revealed 48.4␜imilarity. DNA--DNA hybridization indicated that strain AW-1(T) is not related at the species level to the type strain of P. stutzeri. However, strain AW-1(T) and P. stutzeri DSM 50227 are related at the species level. The physiological and biochemical properties of strain AW-1(T) and the two P. stutzeri strains were compared. A common characteristic of P. stutzeri strains is the ability to denitrify. However, in growth experiments, strain AW-1(T) could use only chlorate or oxygen as an electron acceptor and not nitrate, perchlorate or bromate. Strain AW-1(T) is the first chlorate-reducing bacterium described that does not possess another oxyanion-reduction pathway. Cell extracts of strain AW-1(T) showed chlorate and bromate reductase activities but not nitrate reductase activity. P. stutzeri strains DSM 50227 and DSM 5190(T) could use nitrate or oxygen as an electron acceptor, but not chlorate. Chlorate reductase activity, in addition to nitrate reductase activity, was detected in cell extracts of both P. stutzeri strains. Chlorite dismutase activity was absent in extracts of both P. stutzeri strains but was present in extracts of strain AW-1(T). Based on the hybridization experiments and the physiological and biochemical data, it is proposed that strain AW-1(T) be classified as a novel species of Pseudomonas, Pseudomonas chloritidismutans sp. nov. The type strain is strain AW-1(T) (=DSM 13592(T)=ATCC BAA-443(T)).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2183-2190
JournalInternational Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Volume52
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002

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