Arabidopsis thaliana cytosolic ribosomes are large complexes containing eighty-one distinct ribosomal proteins (r-proteins), four ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and a plethora of associated (non-ribosomal) proteins. In plants, r-proteins of cytosolic ribosomes are each encoded by two to seven different expressed and similar genes, forming an r-protein family. Distinctions in the r-protein coding sequences of gene family members are a source of variation between ribosomes. We performed proteomic investigation of actively translating cytosolic ribosomes purified using both immunopurification and a classical sucrose cushion centrifugation-based protocol from plants of different developmental stages. Both 1D and 2D LC-MSE with data-independent acquisition as well as conventional data-dependent MS/MS procedures were applied. This approach provided detailed identification of 165 r-protein paralogs with high coverage based on proteotypic peptides. The detected r-proteins were the products of the majority (68%) of the 242 cytosolic r-proteins genes encoded by the genome. A total of 70 distinct r-proteins were identified. Based on these results and information from DNA microarray and ribosome footprint profiling studies a re-annotation of Arabidopsis r-proteins and genes is proposed. This compendium of the cytosolic r-protein proteome will serve as a template for future investigations on the dynamic structure and function of plant ribosomes.
Hummel, M., Dobrenel, T., Cordewener, J. H. G., Davanture, M., Meyer, C., Smeekens, J. C. M., ... Hanson, J. (2015). Proteomic LC-MS analysis of Arabidopsis cytosolic ribosomes: Identification of ribosomal protein paralogs and re-annotation of the ribosomal protein genes. Journal of Proteomics, 128, 436-449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2015.07.004