Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

T.H. Tervahauta, Trang Hoang, L. Hernández, G. Zeeman, C.J.N. Buisman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data to compare energy and water balance, nutrient recovery, chemical use, effluent quality and land area requirement in four different sanitation concepts: (1) centralized; (2) centralized with source-separation of urine; (3) source-separation of black water, kitchen refuse and grey water; and (4) source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. The highest primary energy consumption of 914 MJ/capita(cap)/year was attained within the centralized sanitation concept, and the lowest primary energy consumption of 437 MJ/cap/year was attained within source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. Grey water bio-flocculation and subsequent grey water sludge co-digestion decreased the primary energy consumption, but was not energetically favorable to couple with grey water effluent reuse. Source-separation of urine improved the energy balance, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, but required larger land area and higher chemical use in the centralized concept.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1006-1035
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • waste water treatment
  • households
  • effluents
  • new sanitation
  • nutrients
  • recovery
  • energy recovery
  • biobased economy
  • life-cycle assessment
  • waste-water treatment
  • grey water
  • black water
  • human urine
  • constructed wetlands
  • anaerobic-digestion
  • domestic sewage
  • energy

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