Progress made in FEC transformation of cassava

K. Raemakers, M. Schreuder, I. Pereira, T. Munyikwa, E. Jacobsen, R. Visser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademic

25 Citations (Scopus)


In cassava friable embryogenic callus (FEC) has been used to obtain transgenic plants using particle bombardment, electroporation, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. FEC cultures have been obtained in 6 of the 10 tested genotypes. In all genotypes FEC could be regenerated into plants, however the efficiency differed between the genotypes. Almost all plants regenerated from 6 months old FEC cultures of TMS604444, Adira 4, Thai 5 and M7 were morphological similar to control plants. However, in R60 and R90 a large number of plants were not identical to control plants. Older FEC lines of TMS60444 have a reduced ability to regenerate plants and the plants show somaclonal variation. Somaclonal variation is observed in the same extend in transgenic and non-transgenic plants. The origin of this variation is both genetic and epigenetic. Luciferase based selection is less efficient in producing transgenic lines than chemical selection. Furthermore Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation is much more efficient than particle bombardment with respect to the production of transgenic lines. A tentative model is introduced which best describes the effect of different selection regimes on the time period required to produce transgenic plants. Kanamycin and stringent luciferase selection required a shorter period of time than selection based on hygromycin, phosphinothricin or non-stringent luciferase. However, a more significant reduction of time was obtained if young instead of old FEC lines of genotype TMS60444 were used for genetic modification. In accordance to the model these young FEC lines of TMS60444 produced transgenic plants within 4 months with both Agrobacterium tumefaciens combined with kanamycin selection and particle bombardment combined with stringent luciferase selection.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-24
Issue numberSpecial issue
Publication statusPublished - 2001


  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens
  • Luciferase
  • Particle bombardment
  • Somaclonal variation


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