Production of nutrient-enhanced millet-based composite flour using skimmed milk powder and vegetables

Gerald Tumwine, Abel Atukwase, Gaston A. Tumuhimbise*, Francis Tucungwirbe, A.R. Linnemann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to develop a nutrient-enhanced millet-based composite flour incorporating skimmed milk powder and vegetables for children aged 6–59 months. Two processing methods were tested to optimize nutrient content and quality of millet-based composite flour, namely germination for 0, 24 and 48 hr and roasting at 80, 100, and 140°C. The amount of ingredients in the formulation was determined using Nutri-survey software. Germinating millet grains for 48 hr at room temperature significantly (p < 0.05) increased protein content (9.3%–10.6%), protein digestibility (22.3%–65.5%), and total sugars (2.2%–5.5%), while phytate content (3.9–3.7 mg/g) decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Roasting millet grains at 140°C significantly (p < 0.05) increased the protein digestibility (22.3%–60.1%) and reduced protein (9.3%–7.8%), phytate (3.9–3.6 mg/g), and total sugar content (2.2%–1.9%). Germinating millet grains at room temperature for 48 hr resulted in millet flour with the best nutritional quality and was adopted for the production of millet-based composite flour. Addition of vegetables and skimmed milk powder to germinated millet flour significantly (p < 0.05) increased the macro-and micronutrient contents and the functional properties of millet-based composite flour. The study demonstrated that the use of skimmed milk powder and vegetables greatly improves the protein quality and micronutrient profile of millet-based complementary foods. The product has the potential to make a significant contribution to the improvement of nutrition of children in developing countries.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22-34
JournalFood Science and Nutrition
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


  • germination
  • Millet flour
  • skimmed milk
  • vegetables


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