Production of inflammatory mediators and extracellular traps by carp macrophages and neutrophils in response to lipopolysaccharide and/or interferon-¿2

L. Pijanowski, M.H. Scheer, B.M.L. Verburg-van Kemenade, M.K. Chadzinska*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Neutrophilic granulocytes and macrophages are crucial for the innate immune response against infections. They migrate into the focus of inflammation, where they efficiently bind, engulf and kill bacteria by proteolytic enzymes, antimicrobial peptides, reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species. Moreover, activated neutrophils and macrophages can form extracellular traps (ETs). Fish neutrophils and macrophages are morphologically, histochemically, and functionally similar to their mammalian counterparts, but their significance for regulation of inflammatory responses and pathogen killing needs further elucidation. We compared the activity of head kidney monocytes/macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes of common carp and established that upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation, not only neutrophils, but also carp monocytes/macrophages release extracellular DNA and are capable to form macrophage extracellular traps (METs). To clarify whether many specific LPS functions reported for piscine phagocytes might be due to impurities in the commonly used LPS preparations we studied expression of inflammatory mediators, release of DNA, ROS and RNS in cells stimulated with LPS or its highly purified form (pLPS). Also IFN-¿2 stimulation and its synergism with LPS/pLPS in stimulating expression of pro-inflammatory mediators was studied. Results substantiate that a classical stimulation of TLR4 by LPS may indeed be absent in carp as most of the classically reported LPS effects are abolished or diminished when pLPS is used. Interestingly, we also observed a potent IL-10 expression in neutrophilic granulocytes upon LPS stimulation, which, apart from their pro-inflammatory function, clearly indicates a role in restrictive control of the inflammatory reaction.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)473-482
JournalFish and Shellfish Immunology
Volume42
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • toll-like receptors
  • cyprinus-carpio
  • signaling pathways
  • expression analysis
  • escherichia-coli
  • immune-response
  • lps recognition
  • gene-expression
  • fish
  • l.

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