Production of clean agro-pellet commodities (CAPCOM) from agro-residues

K.P.H. Meesters*, P. Abelha, P. Kroon, M. Saric, L. Paz, I.V. Gursel, J.W. Van Groenestijn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperAcademicpeer-review


Large quantities of biomass will be needed to feed the biobased economy. Use of crops and wood may cause (indirect) land use change related greenhouse gas emissions. Agro-residues could be an interesting alternative. However, several issues are hindering efficient application: High potassium and chlorine content and low bulk density are the most important issues. In this research, a series of processes is proposed to overcome these issues. Through a combination of extraction (to remove potassium and chlorine), steam treatment and pelleting, Clean Agro-Pellet Commodities(CAPCOMs) were produced. The pellets showed improved handling properties. Combustion tests showed improved ash melting behavior, reduced fouling of heat exchangers and low emissions of NOx and fines. Fermentation tests showed that pellets produced at low severity factors were easily hydrolized and fermented to produce ethanol at normal yields. Some inhibition was seen with undiluted hydrolysates. Based on the results a techno-economical evaluation showed that pellets from agro-residues could be produced and transported at a cost of around 6 EURO/GJHHV. Sustainability analysis revealed that pellets could be produced with GHG emissions of 3 to 6.4 kgCO2eq/GJLHV. Via the combination of processes described in this paper, a huge potential of nowadays unused biomass can be made applicable for the bioeconomy.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBiomass Conversion to Intermediate Bioenergy Carriers, Sustainable Biofuels and Bio-Based Products
Subtitle of host publicationProduction of Thermally Treated Solid Fuels
EditorsP. Manguin, M. Scarlat, A. Grassi
Place of PublicationFlorence
PublisherETA-Florence Renewable Energies
ISBN (Print)9788889407219
Publication statusPublished - 29 Apr 2021
Event29th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: 26 Apr 202129 Apr 2021

Publication series

NameEuropean Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings
PublisherETA-Florence Renewable Energies
ISSN (Print)2282-5819


Conference29th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2021
CityVirtual, Online


  • Agro-industrial residues
  • Agro-pellet
  • Alkali
  • CO reduction
  • Fermentation
  • Pretreatment


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