The commercial production of microalgae for food applications has been the focus of much attention lately. Culturing marine microalgae in reactors with LED lamps has several advantages. Marine algae contain valuable components such as antioxidants, which are described in this report, and high salinities in production systems can lead to less contamination. By producing them in closed systems at different LED light wavelengths (colours) high biomass concentrations can be obtained and production of biomass and valuable components can be increased. This report summarizes interesting components (i.e. pigments, lipids, carbohydrates) from marine microalgae in addition to general effects of light, nutrients, salt, pressure and mutations on algae growth. The influence of several parameters on biomass growth and pigment formation of several commercially interesting marine algae species is described. These parameters include light intensity, wavelength, light path length, nitrogen source and concentration, mutagens, dilution/refreshment rates, mixing conditions, temperature, salt concentration, flashing (alternating L/D cycles), mixotrophic/phototrophic conditions, alternative nutrient sources, mixed cultures and Si addition. Species that are described in detail include Dunaliella salina and tertiolecta, Arthrospira platensis, Nannochloropsis gaditana and sp., Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Porphyridium purpureum, Tetraselmis chuii, Odontella aurita and Odontella sinensis.