Livestock production supports economic growth, jobs and nutrition, but contributes to and is vulnerable to climate change. A transition is thus needed for livestock systems to become more sustainable and climate resilient, with clear positive effects on the Sustainable Development Goals. It is unclear, however, where the global community should invest to support this change. We identified priority geographies for livestock system investments in 132 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), at mid- and low latitudes. Our results show that adaptation and mitigation goals are inextricably linked for the vast majority of these countries. An equal weighting of adaptation and mitigation indicators suggests that the top five investment priorities are India, Brazil, China, Pakistan and Sudan. Across LMICs, these act as critical control points for the livestock sector’s interactions with the climate system, land and livelihoods.