Primmorphs from seven marine sponges : formation and structure

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Primmorphs were obtained from seven different marine sponges: Stylissa massa, Suberites domuncula, Pseudosuberites aff. andrewsi, Geodia cydonium, Axinella polypoides, Halichondria panicea and Haliclona oculata. The formation process and the ultra structure of primmorphs were studied. A positive correlation was found between the initial sponge-cell concentration and the size of the primmorphs. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM) it was observed that the primmorphs are very densely packed sphere-shaped aggregates with a continuous pinacoderm (skin cell layer) covered by a smooth, cuticle-like structure. In the presence of amphotericin, or a cocktail of antibiotics (kanamycin, gentamycin, tylosin and tetracyclin), no primmorphs were formed, while gentamycin or a mixture of penicillin and streptomycin did not influence the formation of primmorphs. The addition of penicillin and streptomycin was, in most cases, sufficient to prevent bacterial contamination, while fungal growth was unaffected.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-139
JournalJournal of Biotechnology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2003


  • primary-cell culture
  • suberites domuncula
  • halichondria-panicea
  • expression
  • symbiosis
  • bacteria
  • density
  • system

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