Prey availability and temporal partitioning modulate felid coexistence in Neotropical forests

Fernanda Santos, Chris Carbone, Oliver R. Wearn, J.M. Rowcliffe, Santiago Espinosa, Marcela Guimarães Moreira, Jorge A. Ahumada, André Luis Sousa Gonçalves, Leonardo C. Trevelin, Patricia Alvarez-Loayza, Wilson R. Spironello, Patrick A. Jansen, Leandro Juen, Carlos A. Peres

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Carnivores have long been used as model organisms to examine mechanisms that allow coexistence among ecologically similar species. Interactions between carnivores, including competition and predation, comprise important processes regulating local community structure and diversity. We use data from an intensive camera-trapping monitoring program across eight Neotropical forest sites to describe the patterns of spatiotemporal organization of a guild of five sympatric cat species: jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) and margay (Leopardus wiedii). For the three largest cat species, we developed multi-stage occupancy models accounting for habitat characteristics (landscape complexity and prey availability) and models accounting for species interactions (occupancy estimates of potential competitor cat species). Patterns of habitat-use were best explained by prey availability, rather than habitat structure or species interactions, with no evidence of negative associations of jaguar on puma and ocelot occupancy or puma on ocelot occupancy. We further explore temporal activity patterns and overlap of all five felid species. We observed a moderate temporal overlap between jaguar, puma and ocelot, with differences in their activity peaks, whereas higher temporal partitioning was observed between jaguarundi and both ocelot and margay. Lastly, we conducted temporal overlap analysis and calculated species activity levels across study sites to explore if shifts in daily activity within species can be explained by varying levels of local competition pressure. Activity patterns of ocelots, jaguarundis and margays were similarly bimodal across sites, but pumas exhibited irregular activity patterns, most likely as a response to jaguar activity. Activity levels were similar among sites and observed differences were unrelated to competition or intraguild killing risk. Our study reveals apparent spatial and temporal partitioning for most of the species pairs analyzed, with prey abundance being more important than species interactions in governing the local occurrence and spatial distribution of Neotropical forest felids.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0213671
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume14
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Mar 2019

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Leopardus pardalis
Puma
Felidae
Panthera
Panthera onca
tropical forests
Availability
Ecosystem
Cats
Spatial distribution
cats
carnivores
Cameras
habitats
Sympatry
Monitoring
Puma concolor
Forests
community structure
spatial distribution

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Santos, F., Carbone, C., Wearn, O. R., Rowcliffe, J. M., Espinosa, S., Moreira, M. G., ... Peres, C. A. (2019). Prey availability and temporal partitioning modulate felid coexistence in Neotropical forests. PLoS ONE, 14(3), [e0213671]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213671
Santos, Fernanda ; Carbone, Chris ; Wearn, Oliver R. ; Rowcliffe, J.M. ; Espinosa, Santiago ; Moreira, Marcela Guimarães ; Ahumada, Jorge A. ; Gonçalves, André Luis Sousa ; Trevelin, Leonardo C. ; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia ; Spironello, Wilson R. ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Juen, Leandro ; Peres, Carlos A. / Prey availability and temporal partitioning modulate felid coexistence in Neotropical forests. In: PLoS ONE. 2019 ; Vol. 14, No. 3.
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abstract = "Carnivores have long been used as model organisms to examine mechanisms that allow coexistence among ecologically similar species. Interactions between carnivores, including competition and predation, comprise important processes regulating local community structure and diversity. We use data from an intensive camera-trapping monitoring program across eight Neotropical forest sites to describe the patterns of spatiotemporal organization of a guild of five sympatric cat species: jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) and margay (Leopardus wiedii). For the three largest cat species, we developed multi-stage occupancy models accounting for habitat characteristics (landscape complexity and prey availability) and models accounting for species interactions (occupancy estimates of potential competitor cat species). Patterns of habitat-use were best explained by prey availability, rather than habitat structure or species interactions, with no evidence of negative associations of jaguar on puma and ocelot occupancy or puma on ocelot occupancy. We further explore temporal activity patterns and overlap of all five felid species. We observed a moderate temporal overlap between jaguar, puma and ocelot, with differences in their activity peaks, whereas higher temporal partitioning was observed between jaguarundi and both ocelot and margay. Lastly, we conducted temporal overlap analysis and calculated species activity levels across study sites to explore if shifts in daily activity within species can be explained by varying levels of local competition pressure. Activity patterns of ocelots, jaguarundis and margays were similarly bimodal across sites, but pumas exhibited irregular activity patterns, most likely as a response to jaguar activity. Activity levels were similar among sites and observed differences were unrelated to competition or intraguild killing risk. Our study reveals apparent spatial and temporal partitioning for most of the species pairs analyzed, with prey abundance being more important than species interactions in governing the local occurrence and spatial distribution of Neotropical forest felids.",
author = "Fernanda Santos and Chris Carbone and Wearn, {Oliver R.} and J.M. Rowcliffe and Santiago Espinosa and Moreira, {Marcela Guimar{\~a}es} and Ahumada, {Jorge A.} and Gon{\cc}alves, {Andr{\'e} Luis Sousa} and Trevelin, {Leonardo C.} and Patricia Alvarez-Loayza and Spironello, {Wilson R.} and Jansen, {Patrick A.} and Leandro Juen and Peres, {Carlos A.}",
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Santos, F, Carbone, C, Wearn, OR, Rowcliffe, JM, Espinosa, S, Moreira, MG, Ahumada, JA, Gonçalves, ALS, Trevelin, LC, Alvarez-Loayza, P, Spironello, WR, Jansen, PA, Juen, L & Peres, CA 2019, 'Prey availability and temporal partitioning modulate felid coexistence in Neotropical forests' PLoS ONE, vol. 14, no. 3, e0213671. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213671

Prey availability and temporal partitioning modulate felid coexistence in Neotropical forests. / Santos, Fernanda; Carbone, Chris; Wearn, Oliver R.; Rowcliffe, J.M.; Espinosa, Santiago; Moreira, Marcela Guimarães; Ahumada, Jorge A.; Gonçalves, André Luis Sousa; Trevelin, Leonardo C.; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Spironello, Wilson R.; Jansen, Patrick A.; Juen, Leandro; Peres, Carlos A.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 14, No. 3, e0213671, 12.03.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Santos, Fernanda

AU - Carbone, Chris

AU - Wearn, Oliver R.

AU - Rowcliffe, J.M.

AU - Espinosa, Santiago

AU - Moreira, Marcela Guimarães

AU - Ahumada, Jorge A.

AU - Gonçalves, André Luis Sousa

AU - Trevelin, Leonardo C.

AU - Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia

AU - Spironello, Wilson R.

AU - Jansen, Patrick A.

AU - Juen, Leandro

AU - Peres, Carlos A.

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N2 - Carnivores have long been used as model organisms to examine mechanisms that allow coexistence among ecologically similar species. Interactions between carnivores, including competition and predation, comprise important processes regulating local community structure and diversity. We use data from an intensive camera-trapping monitoring program across eight Neotropical forest sites to describe the patterns of spatiotemporal organization of a guild of five sympatric cat species: jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) and margay (Leopardus wiedii). For the three largest cat species, we developed multi-stage occupancy models accounting for habitat characteristics (landscape complexity and prey availability) and models accounting for species interactions (occupancy estimates of potential competitor cat species). Patterns of habitat-use were best explained by prey availability, rather than habitat structure or species interactions, with no evidence of negative associations of jaguar on puma and ocelot occupancy or puma on ocelot occupancy. We further explore temporal activity patterns and overlap of all five felid species. We observed a moderate temporal overlap between jaguar, puma and ocelot, with differences in their activity peaks, whereas higher temporal partitioning was observed between jaguarundi and both ocelot and margay. Lastly, we conducted temporal overlap analysis and calculated species activity levels across study sites to explore if shifts in daily activity within species can be explained by varying levels of local competition pressure. Activity patterns of ocelots, jaguarundis and margays were similarly bimodal across sites, but pumas exhibited irregular activity patterns, most likely as a response to jaguar activity. Activity levels were similar among sites and observed differences were unrelated to competition or intraguild killing risk. Our study reveals apparent spatial and temporal partitioning for most of the species pairs analyzed, with prey abundance being more important than species interactions in governing the local occurrence and spatial distribution of Neotropical forest felids.

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Santos F, Carbone C, Wearn OR, Rowcliffe JM, Espinosa S, Moreira MG et al. Prey availability and temporal partitioning modulate felid coexistence in Neotropical forests. PLoS ONE. 2019 Mar 12;14(3). e0213671. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213671