Prevalence and genetic variation of salivary gland hypertrophy virus in wild populations of the tsetse fly Glossina pallipides from southern and eastern Africa

H.M. Kariithi, M. Ahmadi, A.G. Parker, G. Franz, V.I.D. Ros, I. Haq, A.M. Elashry, J.M. Vlak, M. Bergoin, M.J.B. Vreysen, A.M.M. Abd-Alla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV) is a rod-shaped, non-occluded double-stranded DNA virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) and reduced fecundity in the tsetse fly G. pallidipes. High GpSGHV prevalence (up to 80%) makes it impossible to mass-rear G. pallidipes colonies for the sterile insect technique (SIT). To evaluate the feasibility of molecular-based GpSGHV management strategies, we investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of GpSGHV in wild populations of G. pallidipes collected from ten geographical locations in eastern and southern Africa. Virus diversity was examined using a total sequence of 1497 nucleotides (similar to 1% of the GpSGHV genome) from five putative conserved ORFs, p74, pif1, pif2, pif3 and dnapol. Overall, 34.08% of the analyzed flies (n = 1972) tested positive by nested PCR. GpSGHV prevalence varied from 2% to 100% from one location to another but phylogenetic and gene genealogy analyses using concatenated sequences of the five putative ORFs revealed low virus diversity. Although no correlation of the virus diversity to geographical locations was detected, the GpSGHV haplotypes could be assigned to one of two distinct clades. The reference (Tororo) haplotype was the most widely distributed, and was shared by 47 individuals in seven of the 11 locations. The Ethiopian haplotypes were restricted to one clade, and showed the highest divergence (with 14-16 single nucleotide mutation steps) from the reference haplotype. The current study suggests that the proposed molecular-based virus management strategies have a good prospect of working throughout eastern and southern Africa due to the low diversity of the GpSGHV strains. Copyright (c) International Atomic Energy Agency 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S123-S132
JournalJournal of Invertebrate Pathology
Volume112
Issue numbersuppl. 1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Keywords

  • morsitans-centralis diptera
  • dna virus
  • ultrastructural-changes
  • female tsetse
  • in-vivo
  • flies
  • host
  • identification
  • haplotypes
  • symbionts

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