Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA in inflamed bovine cardiac valves

Jørgen S. Agerholm*, Tim K. Jensen, Jens F. Agger, Marc Y. Engelsma, Hendrik-Jan Roest

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Bacterial endocarditis is a recognised disease in humans and animals. In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii can cause endocarditis, but this has not been investigated thoroughly in animals. Endocarditis in cattle is a common post-mortem finding in abattoirs and studies have identified Trueperella pyogenes as a major cause. Despite exposure of cattle to C. burnetii, the significance of this particular bacterium for development and progression of endocarditis has not been studied in detail. Cardiac valves of cattle affected with endocarditis (n = 100) were examined by histology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum was examined for anti-C. burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Serology revealed that 70% of the cattle were positive for antibodies to C. burnetii, while PCR analysis identified 25% of endocarditis valve samples as being positive. C. burnetii was not detected by FISH, probably due to the low infection levels. Most cattle had chronic valvular vegetative endocarditis with lesions being characterised by a core of fibrous tissue covered by significant amounts of fibrin, sometimes with areas of liquefaction, and with a coagulum covering the surface. In a few cases, including the case with the highest infection level, lesions were characterized by extensive fibrosis and calcification. Histologically, bacteria other than C. burnetii were observed in most cases. Conclusions: The presence of C. burnetii DNA is relatively common in cattle affected with valvular endocarditis. The role of C. burnetii remains however unknown as lesions did not differ between C. burnetii infected and non-infected cattle and because T. pyogenes-like bacteria were present in the inflamed valves; a bacterium able to induce the observed lesions. Heart valves of normal cattle should be investigated to assess if C. burnetii may be present without preexisting lesions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number69
JournalBMC Veterinary Research
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

Coxiella burnetii
Heart Valves
endocarditis
Endocarditis
cattle
DNA
lesions (animal)
Bacteria
Arcanobacterium pyogenes
bacteria
Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization
fluorescence in situ hybridization
coagulum
heart valves
Q Fever
Bacterial Endocarditis
infection
Abattoirs
diseases and disorders (animals and humans)
Antibodies

Keywords

  • Cattle
  • Coxiella burnetii
  • Endocarditis
  • PCR
  • Q fever

Cite this

Agerholm, Jørgen S. ; Jensen, Tim K. ; Agger, Jens F. ; Engelsma, Marc Y. ; Roest, Hendrik-Jan. / Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA in inflamed bovine cardiac valves. In: BMC Veterinary Research. 2017 ; Vol. 13, No. 1.
@article{b5288c6e073f47f09e48897a7d2c6468,
title = "Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA in inflamed bovine cardiac valves",
abstract = "Background: Bacterial endocarditis is a recognised disease in humans and animals. In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii can cause endocarditis, but this has not been investigated thoroughly in animals. Endocarditis in cattle is a common post-mortem finding in abattoirs and studies have identified Trueperella pyogenes as a major cause. Despite exposure of cattle to C. burnetii, the significance of this particular bacterium for development and progression of endocarditis has not been studied in detail. Cardiac valves of cattle affected with endocarditis (n = 100) were examined by histology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum was examined for anti-C. burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Serology revealed that 70{\%} of the cattle were positive for antibodies to C. burnetii, while PCR analysis identified 25{\%} of endocarditis valve samples as being positive. C. burnetii was not detected by FISH, probably due to the low infection levels. Most cattle had chronic valvular vegetative endocarditis with lesions being characterised by a core of fibrous tissue covered by significant amounts of fibrin, sometimes with areas of liquefaction, and with a coagulum covering the surface. In a few cases, including the case with the highest infection level, lesions were characterized by extensive fibrosis and calcification. Histologically, bacteria other than C. burnetii were observed in most cases. Conclusions: The presence of C. burnetii DNA is relatively common in cattle affected with valvular endocarditis. The role of C. burnetii remains however unknown as lesions did not differ between C. burnetii infected and non-infected cattle and because T. pyogenes-like bacteria were present in the inflamed valves; a bacterium able to induce the observed lesions. Heart valves of normal cattle should be investigated to assess if C. burnetii may be present without preexisting lesions.",
keywords = "Cattle, Coxiella burnetii, Endocarditis, PCR, Q fever",
author = "Agerholm, {J{\o}rgen S.} and Jensen, {Tim K.} and Agger, {Jens F.} and Engelsma, {Marc Y.} and Hendrik-Jan Roest",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1186/s12917-017-0988-5",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
journal = "BMC Veterinary Research",
issn = "1746-6148",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "1",

}

Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA in inflamed bovine cardiac valves. / Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Jensen, Tim K.; Agger, Jens F.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Roest, Hendrik-Jan.

In: BMC Veterinary Research, Vol. 13, No. 1, 69, 2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA in inflamed bovine cardiac valves

AU - Agerholm, Jørgen S.

AU - Jensen, Tim K.

AU - Agger, Jens F.

AU - Engelsma, Marc Y.

AU - Roest, Hendrik-Jan

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Background: Bacterial endocarditis is a recognised disease in humans and animals. In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii can cause endocarditis, but this has not been investigated thoroughly in animals. Endocarditis in cattle is a common post-mortem finding in abattoirs and studies have identified Trueperella pyogenes as a major cause. Despite exposure of cattle to C. burnetii, the significance of this particular bacterium for development and progression of endocarditis has not been studied in detail. Cardiac valves of cattle affected with endocarditis (n = 100) were examined by histology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum was examined for anti-C. burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Serology revealed that 70% of the cattle were positive for antibodies to C. burnetii, while PCR analysis identified 25% of endocarditis valve samples as being positive. C. burnetii was not detected by FISH, probably due to the low infection levels. Most cattle had chronic valvular vegetative endocarditis with lesions being characterised by a core of fibrous tissue covered by significant amounts of fibrin, sometimes with areas of liquefaction, and with a coagulum covering the surface. In a few cases, including the case with the highest infection level, lesions were characterized by extensive fibrosis and calcification. Histologically, bacteria other than C. burnetii were observed in most cases. Conclusions: The presence of C. burnetii DNA is relatively common in cattle affected with valvular endocarditis. The role of C. burnetii remains however unknown as lesions did not differ between C. burnetii infected and non-infected cattle and because T. pyogenes-like bacteria were present in the inflamed valves; a bacterium able to induce the observed lesions. Heart valves of normal cattle should be investigated to assess if C. burnetii may be present without preexisting lesions.

AB - Background: Bacterial endocarditis is a recognised disease in humans and animals. In humans, infection with Coxiella burnetii can cause endocarditis, but this has not been investigated thoroughly in animals. Endocarditis in cattle is a common post-mortem finding in abattoirs and studies have identified Trueperella pyogenes as a major cause. Despite exposure of cattle to C. burnetii, the significance of this particular bacterium for development and progression of endocarditis has not been studied in detail. Cardiac valves of cattle affected with endocarditis (n = 100) were examined by histology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum was examined for anti-C. burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Serology revealed that 70% of the cattle were positive for antibodies to C. burnetii, while PCR analysis identified 25% of endocarditis valve samples as being positive. C. burnetii was not detected by FISH, probably due to the low infection levels. Most cattle had chronic valvular vegetative endocarditis with lesions being characterised by a core of fibrous tissue covered by significant amounts of fibrin, sometimes with areas of liquefaction, and with a coagulum covering the surface. In a few cases, including the case with the highest infection level, lesions were characterized by extensive fibrosis and calcification. Histologically, bacteria other than C. burnetii were observed in most cases. Conclusions: The presence of C. burnetii DNA is relatively common in cattle affected with valvular endocarditis. The role of C. burnetii remains however unknown as lesions did not differ between C. burnetii infected and non-infected cattle and because T. pyogenes-like bacteria were present in the inflamed valves; a bacterium able to induce the observed lesions. Heart valves of normal cattle should be investigated to assess if C. burnetii may be present without preexisting lesions.

KW - Cattle

KW - Coxiella burnetii

KW - Endocarditis

KW - PCR

KW - Q fever

U2 - 10.1186/s12917-017-0988-5

DO - 10.1186/s12917-017-0988-5

M3 - Article

VL - 13

JO - BMC Veterinary Research

JF - BMC Veterinary Research

SN - 1746-6148

IS - 1

M1 - 69

ER -