Presence of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old hexaploid wheat varieties: wheat breeding may have contributed to increased prevalence of celiac disease

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Gluten proteins from wheat can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. Specific gluten peptides can be presented by antigen presenting cells to gluten-sensitive T-cell lymphocytes leading to CD. During the last decades, a significant increase has been observed in the prevalence of CD. This may partly be attributed to an increase in awareness and to improved diagnostic techniques, but increased wheat and gluten consumption is also considered a major cause. To analyze whether wheat breeding contributed to the increase of the prevalence of CD, we have compared the genetic diversity of gluten proteins for the presence of two CD epitopes (Glia-a9 and Glia-a20) in 36 modern European wheat varieties and in 50 landraces representing the wheat varieties grown up to around a century ago. Glia-a9 is a major (immunodominant) epitope that is recognized by the majority of CD patients. The minor Glia-a20 was included as a technical reference. Overall, the presence of the Glia-a9 epitope was higher in the modern varieties, whereas the presence of the Glia-a20 epitope was lower, as compared to the landraces. This suggests that modern wheat breeding practices may have led to an increased exposure to CD epitopes. On the other hand, some modern varieties and landraces have been identified that have relatively low contents of both epitopes. Such selected lines may serve as a start to breed wheat for the introduction of ‘low CD toxic’ as a new breeding trait. Large-scale culture and consumption of such varieties would considerably aid in decreasing the prevalence of CD
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1527-1539
JournalTheoretical and Applied Genetics
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2010



  • t-cell epitope
  • molecular-weight subunits
  • bread-making quality
  • allelic variation
  • gluten proteins
  • omega-gliadins
  • autoimmune disorders
  • gel electrophoresis
  • triticum-aestivum
  • genetic diversity

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