Background Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is expressed by granulosa cells of developing follicles and plays an inhibiting role in the cyclic process of follicular recruitment by determining follicle-stimulating hormone threshold levels. Knowledge of AMH expression in the porcine ovary is important to understand the reproductive efficiency in female pigs. Research aim In the present study we investigated the expression of AMH during follicular development in prepubertal and adult female pigs by immunohistochemistry, laser capture micro-dissection and RT-qPCR. Results and conclusion Although in many aspects the immunohistochemical localization of AMH in the porcine ovary does not differ from other species, there are also some striking differences. As in most species, AMH appears for the first time during porcine follicular development in the fusiform granulosa cells of recruited primordial follicles and continues to be present in granulosa cells up to the antral stage. By the time follicles reach the pre-ovulatory stage, AMH staining intensity increases significantly, and both protein and gene expression is not restricted to granulosa cells; theca cells now also express AMH. AMH continues to be expressed after ovulation in the luteal cells of the corpus luteum, a phenomenon unique to the porcine ovary. The physiological function of AMH in the corpus luteum is at present not clear. One can speculate that it may contribute to the regulation of the cyclic recruitment of small antral follicles. By avoiding premature exhaustion of the ovarian follicular reserve, AMH may contribute to optimization of reproductive performance in female pigs.