Diploid wheat, Triticum monococcum s.l., is a host for the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. Some accessions have been reported to show a high degree of prehaustorial resistance. This is non-hypersensitivity resistance, which acts before the formation of haustoria by the pathogen. To assess the frequency of prehaustorial resistance 598 accessions of diploid wheat were inoculated with the wheat leaf rust isolate Felix. Most T. monococcum s.s. accessions (84%) were resistant whereas all T. urartu and all but three T. boeoticum accessions were susceptible. Histological components analysis revealed that a high percentage of prehaustorial resistance to P. triticina was found in only three T. monococcum accessions. No haustoria were observed in such infection units confirming the prehaustorial nature of the resistance. Prehaustorial abortion of certain infection units in an accession always coincided with posthaustorial abortion of the other infection units.