Predicting major outcomes in type 1 diabetes: a model development and validation study

S.S. Soedamah-Muthu, Y. Vergouwe, T. Costacou, R.G. Miller, J. Zgibor, N. Chaturvedi, J.K. Snell-Bergeon, D.M. Maahs, M. Rewers, C. Forsblom, V. Harjutsalo, P.H. Groop, J.H. Fuller, K.G.M. Moons, T.J. Orchard

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36 Citations (Scopus)


Aims/hypothesis Type 1 diabetes is associated with a higher risk of major vascular complications and death. A reliable method that predicted these outcomes early in the disease process would help in risk classification. We therefore developed such a prognostic model and quantified its performance in independent cohorts. Methods Data were analysed from 1,973 participants with type 1 diabetes followed for 7 years in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. Strong prognostic factors for major outcomes were combined in a Weibull regression model. The performance of the model was tested in three different prospective cohorts: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study (EDC, n¿=¿554), the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy study (FinnDiane, n¿=¿2,999) and the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study (CACTI, n¿=¿580). Major outcomes included major CHD, stroke, end-stage renal failure, amputations, blindness and all-cause death. Results A total of 95 EURODIAB patients with type 1 diabetes developed major outcomes during follow-up. Prognostic factors were age, HbA1c, WHR, albumin/creatinine ratio and HDL-cholesterol level. The discriminative ability of the model was adequate, with a concordance statistic (C-statistic) of 0.74. Discrimination was similar or even better in the independent cohorts, the C-statistics being: EDC, 0.79; FinnDiane, 0.82; and CACTI, 0.73. Conclusions/interpretation Our prognostic model, which uses easily accessible clinical features can discriminate between type 1 diabetes patients who have a good or a poor prognosis. Such a prognostic model may be helpful in clinical practice and for risk stratification in clinical trials.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2304-2314
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • coronary-heart-disease
  • eurodiab prospective complications
  • all-cause mortality
  • cardiovascular-disease
  • pittsburgh epidemiology
  • risk-factors
  • intensive treatment
  • iddm complications
  • metabolic syndrome
  • association


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