Porosity, Bulk Density, and Volume Reduction During Drying: Review of Measurement Methods and Coefficient Determinations

J. Qiu, S. Khalloufi, A. Martynenko, G. van Dalen, M.A.I. Schutyser, C. Almeida-Rivera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Several experimental methods for measuring porosity, bulk density and volume reduction during drying of foodstuff are available. These methods include among others geometric dimension, volume displacement, mercury porosimeter, micro-CT, and NMR. However, data on their accuracy, sensitivity, and appropriateness are scarce. This paper reviews these experimental methods, areas of applications and limits. In addition, the concept of porosity, bulk density and volume reduction and their evolution as a function of moisture content during drying is presented. In this study, values of initial porosity (¿0) and density ratio (ß) of some food products are summarized. It has been found that ¿0 is highly dependent on the type of food products, while ß ranges from 1.1 to 1.6. The possibility of calculating solid density based on food compositions has also been validated. The inter-predictions between porosity, bulk density and volume density have been made mathematically evident.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1681-1699
JournalDrying Technology
Volume33
Issue number14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • pore-size distribution
  • cooked beef product
  • mercury porosimetry
  • physical-properties
  • structural-properties
  • vacuum impregnation
  • image-analysis
  • porous-media
  • true density
  • shrinkage

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