Physics of breadmaking

J.J. Kokelaar

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU


<p>Bread dough is a foam and the stability of the gas bubbles towards disproportionation and coalescence during the breadmaking process determines for a large part the final appearance of the baked bread with respect to crumb structure and loaf volume. Gas bubble behaviour in bread dough is determined by both surface and bulk rheological properties of dough (components). These properties were studied and their relevance to breadmaking was established.<p>Surface dilational moduli of different dough components were determined. It appears that wheat lipids and added surfactants as SSL and DATEM can retard disproportionation to a large extent if these components are present in the right concentration and modification. Wheat proteins will hardly retard this foam instability mechanism.<p>Dynamic measurements and biaxial extension tests on wheat and rye flour as well as wheat gluten doughs were performed. Both flour and gluten doughs show strain hardening at 20 and at 55°C. Wheat cultivars with good breadmaking performance exhibit stronger strain hardening properties than poor baking ones and rye. Next to strain hardening, biaxial stress and extensibility are important parameters determining bread quality.<p>During mixing both the surface tension and the viscosity of the dough determine the (minimum) radii of the entrapped gas bubbles. Directly after mixing surface properties dominate primarily gas bubble behaviour by retarding disproportionation, especially if surfactants like SSL or DATEM are added. Already during first proof bulk properties, especially biaxial stress, extensibility and strain hardening, start to dominate gas bubble stability and this remains as such during almost the remainder of the breadmaking process. In the final stage of oven rise surface properties may contribute to the stability of some dough films that have become very thin.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Prins, A., Promotor
  • van Vliet, T., Promotor, External person
Award date15 Feb 1994
Place of PublicationS.l.
Print ISBNs9789054852223
Publication statusPublished - 1994


  • breadmaking
  • baking quality
  • doughs
  • fluid mechanics
  • rheology
  • viscoelasticity
  • foams
  • foaming
  • surface phenomena

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