Physicochemical and functional characterization of pectin extracted from Moroccan citrus peels

Noussaire El Fihry, Khalil El Mabrouk, Mia Eeckhout, Henk A. Schols, Younes Filali-Zegzouti, Hassan Hajjaj*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Three Moroccan citrus peels, such as orange, lemon, and bigarade, were chosen to extract the pectin using Box Behnken Design. At a temperature of 90 °C, pH = 1.5, and extraction time = 120 min, a high pectin yield was recorded with 28.57, 26.86, and 26.55% for lemon (LPP), bigarade (BPP), and orange (OPP) peel pectins respectively. The extracted pectins have a less branched linear structure with high GalA contents for BPP (86.0 mol%), LPP (82.0 mol%), and OPP (79.0 mol%), and a high degree of methyl esterification (>74%), but a low degree of acetylation (<4%). A narrow and homogeneous distribution was recorded with a higher average Mw for LPP (90.0 kDa) than OPP (88.0 kDa) and BPP (80.0 kDa). One gram of Moroccan citrus pectin could hold more than 23.0 g of water. The high emulsifying activity was recorded for the three citrus pectins (∼50%), with higher emulsion stability for BPP pectin at 4 °C (94.42%). Furthermore, all extracted pectins exhibit a significantly non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior when the concentration increases. At 3% concentration, the apparent viscosity of BPP was higher than that of OPP and LPP with 40.26, 13.45, and 6.85 Pa s, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113508
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022


  • Characterization
  • Extraction
  • Moroccan citrus pectin
  • Optimization


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