Physical Interaction of T Cells with Dendritic Cells Is Not Required for the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

Ruud H.P. Wilbers, Lotte B. Westerhof, Jan van de Velde, Geert Smant, Debbie Valkenburg-van Raaij, Anton S.M. Sonnenberg, Jaap Bakker, Arjen Schots

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) affect T cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs, and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC’s cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation.
The other six mushroom species upregulated MHC-II and CD86 expression, but did not significantly affect the expression of CD40 and CD11c. Nevertheless, mushroom compounds of all investigated mushroom species are endocytosed by DCs. Endocytosis is most likely mediated by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) because CLR binding is Ca2+ dependent, and EGTA reduces TNF-α secretion with more than 90%. Laminarin partly inhibited TNF-α secretion indicating that the CLR dectin-1, among other CLRs, is involved in binding mushroom compounds. Stimulated DCs were shown to stimulate T cells; however, physical contact of DCs and T cells is not required. Because CLRs seem to play a prominent role in DC stimulation, mushrooms may function as a carbohydrate
containing adjuvant to be used in conjunction with anti-fungal vaccines.
Original languageEnglish
Article number519
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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Agaricus
Agaricales
Dendritic Cells
T-Lymphocytes
C-Type Lectins
Endocytosis
Fungal Vaccines
Egtazic Acid

Cite this

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title = "Physical Interaction of T Cells with Dendritic Cells Is Not Required for the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens",
abstract = "Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) affect T cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs, and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC’s cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation.The other six mushroom species upregulated MHC-II and CD86 expression, but did not significantly affect the expression of CD40 and CD11c. Nevertheless, mushroom compounds of all investigated mushroom species are endocytosed by DCs. Endocytosis is most likely mediated by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) because CLR binding is Ca2+ dependent, and EGTA reduces TNF-α secretion with more than 90{\%}. Laminarin partly inhibited TNF-α secretion indicating that the CLR dectin-1, among other CLRs, is involved in binding mushroom compounds. Stimulated DCs were shown to stimulate T cells; however, physical contact of DCs and T cells is not required. Because CLRs seem to play a prominent role in DC stimulation, mushrooms may function as a carbohydratecontaining adjuvant to be used in conjunction with anti-fungal vaccines.",
author = "Wilbers, {Ruud H.P.} and Westerhof, {Lotte B.} and {van de Velde}, Jan and Geert Smant and {Valkenburg-van Raaij}, Debbie and Sonnenberg, {Anton S.M.} and Jaap Bakker and Arjen Schots",
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language = "English",
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journal = "Frontiers in Immunology",
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publisher = "Frontiers",

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Physical Interaction of T Cells with Dendritic Cells Is Not Required for the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens. / Wilbers, Ruud H.P.; Westerhof, Lotte B.; van de Velde, Jan; Smant, Geert; Valkenburg-van Raaij, Debbie; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Bakker, Jaap; Schots, Arjen.

In: Frontiers in Immunology, Vol. 7, 519, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Physical Interaction of T Cells with Dendritic Cells Is Not Required for the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

AU - Wilbers, Ruud H.P.

AU - Westerhof, Lotte B.

AU - van de Velde, Jan

AU - Smant, Geert

AU - Valkenburg-van Raaij, Debbie

AU - Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.

AU - Bakker, Jaap

AU - Schots, Arjen

PY - 2016

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N2 - Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) affect T cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs, and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC’s cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation.The other six mushroom species upregulated MHC-II and CD86 expression, but did not significantly affect the expression of CD40 and CD11c. Nevertheless, mushroom compounds of all investigated mushroom species are endocytosed by DCs. Endocytosis is most likely mediated by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) because CLR binding is Ca2+ dependent, and EGTA reduces TNF-α secretion with more than 90%. Laminarin partly inhibited TNF-α secretion indicating that the CLR dectin-1, among other CLRs, is involved in binding mushroom compounds. Stimulated DCs were shown to stimulate T cells; however, physical contact of DCs and T cells is not required. Because CLRs seem to play a prominent role in DC stimulation, mushrooms may function as a carbohydratecontaining adjuvant to be used in conjunction with anti-fungal vaccines.

AB - Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) affect T cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs, and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC’s cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation.The other six mushroom species upregulated MHC-II and CD86 expression, but did not significantly affect the expression of CD40 and CD11c. Nevertheless, mushroom compounds of all investigated mushroom species are endocytosed by DCs. Endocytosis is most likely mediated by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) because CLR binding is Ca2+ dependent, and EGTA reduces TNF-α secretion with more than 90%. Laminarin partly inhibited TNF-α secretion indicating that the CLR dectin-1, among other CLRs, is involved in binding mushroom compounds. Stimulated DCs were shown to stimulate T cells; however, physical contact of DCs and T cells is not required. Because CLRs seem to play a prominent role in DC stimulation, mushrooms may function as a carbohydratecontaining adjuvant to be used in conjunction with anti-fungal vaccines.

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