Physical exercise and/or enriched foods for functional improvement in frail, independently living elderly : a randomized controlled trial

M.J.M. Chin A Paw, N. de Jong, E.G. Schouten, G.J. Hiddink, F.J. Kok

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Abstract

Chin A Paw MJM, de Jong N, Schouten EG, Hiddink GJ, Kok FJ. Physical exercise and/or enriched foods for functional improvement in frail, independently living elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:811-7. Objective: To examine the effects of an exercise program and an enriched food regimen on physical functioning of frail elderly persons. Design: A 17-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Community. Participants: One hundred fifty-seven independently living frail elderly (mean age, 78.7 ± 5.6yr). Intervention: Thirty-nine subjects participated in a twice weekly group exercise designed to improve daily functioning; 39 subjects daily ate foods enriched with vitamins and minerals (at 25%-100% of the recommended daily allowances); 42 subjects exercised and ate enriched foods; and 37 subjects served as controls. Nonexercising groups followed a social program; nonsupplement groups received the same food products without the micronutrients. Main Outcome Measures: Functional performance based on 6 performance tests, physical fitness based on 7 fitness tests, and disabilities based on the self-reported ability to perform 16 daily activities. Results: Performance sum scores were significantly enhanced in trained (+8%) compared with nontrained subjects (−8%) (difference in change: 1.9 points, p <.001, adjusted for baseline scores). Fitness sum scores were significantly enhanced as well (+3% in trained vs −2% in nontrained) (difference in change: 0.9 points, p =.05, adjusted for baseline scores). No exercise effects on the disability score were observed. Consumption of enriched products did not affect performance, fitness, or disability scores. Conclusion: Our comprehensive exercise program, designed for widespread applicability, enhanced physical performance and fitness in a population of frail elderly. Daily consumption of micronutrient enriched foods showed no functional benefits within 17 weeks.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)811-817
JournalArchives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
Volume82
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2001

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Fortified Food
Frail Elderly
Randomized Controlled Trials
Exercise
Physical Fitness
Micronutrients
A 17
Recommended Dietary Allowances
Chin
Vitamins
Minerals
Placebos
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Food
Population

Cite this

@article{6e18ceb5ef9a4a54a23537c6b0e5aef8,
title = "Physical exercise and/or enriched foods for functional improvement in frail, independently living elderly : a randomized controlled trial",
abstract = "Chin A Paw MJM, de Jong N, Schouten EG, Hiddink GJ, Kok FJ. Physical exercise and/or enriched foods for functional improvement in frail, independently living elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:811-7. Objective: To examine the effects of an exercise program and an enriched food regimen on physical functioning of frail elderly persons. Design: A 17-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Community. Participants: One hundred fifty-seven independently living frail elderly (mean age, 78.7 ± 5.6yr). Intervention: Thirty-nine subjects participated in a twice weekly group exercise designed to improve daily functioning; 39 subjects daily ate foods enriched with vitamins and minerals (at 25{\%}-100{\%} of the recommended daily allowances); 42 subjects exercised and ate enriched foods; and 37 subjects served as controls. Nonexercising groups followed a social program; nonsupplement groups received the same food products without the micronutrients. Main Outcome Measures: Functional performance based on 6 performance tests, physical fitness based on 7 fitness tests, and disabilities based on the self-reported ability to perform 16 daily activities. Results: Performance sum scores were significantly enhanced in trained (+8{\%}) compared with nontrained subjects (−8{\%}) (difference in change: 1.9 points, p <.001, adjusted for baseline scores). Fitness sum scores were significantly enhanced as well (+3{\%} in trained vs −2{\%} in nontrained) (difference in change: 0.9 points, p =.05, adjusted for baseline scores). No exercise effects on the disability score were observed. Consumption of enriched products did not affect performance, fitness, or disability scores. Conclusion: Our comprehensive exercise program, designed for widespread applicability, enhanced physical performance and fitness in a population of frail elderly. Daily consumption of micronutrient enriched foods showed no functional benefits within 17 weeks.",
author = "{Chin A Paw}, M.J.M. and {de Jong}, N. and E.G. Schouten and G.J. Hiddink and F.J. Kok",
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language = "English",
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Physical exercise and/or enriched foods for functional improvement in frail, independently living elderly : a randomized controlled trial. / Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; de Jong, N.; Schouten, E.G.; Hiddink, G.J.; Kok, F.J.

In: Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, Vol. 82, No. 6, 2001, p. 811-817.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - de Jong, N.

AU - Schouten, E.G.

AU - Hiddink, G.J.

AU - Kok, F.J.

PY - 2001

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N2 - Chin A Paw MJM, de Jong N, Schouten EG, Hiddink GJ, Kok FJ. Physical exercise and/or enriched foods for functional improvement in frail, independently living elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:811-7. Objective: To examine the effects of an exercise program and an enriched food regimen on physical functioning of frail elderly persons. Design: A 17-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Community. Participants: One hundred fifty-seven independently living frail elderly (mean age, 78.7 ± 5.6yr). Intervention: Thirty-nine subjects participated in a twice weekly group exercise designed to improve daily functioning; 39 subjects daily ate foods enriched with vitamins and minerals (at 25%-100% of the recommended daily allowances); 42 subjects exercised and ate enriched foods; and 37 subjects served as controls. Nonexercising groups followed a social program; nonsupplement groups received the same food products without the micronutrients. Main Outcome Measures: Functional performance based on 6 performance tests, physical fitness based on 7 fitness tests, and disabilities based on the self-reported ability to perform 16 daily activities. Results: Performance sum scores were significantly enhanced in trained (+8%) compared with nontrained subjects (−8%) (difference in change: 1.9 points, p <.001, adjusted for baseline scores). Fitness sum scores were significantly enhanced as well (+3% in trained vs −2% in nontrained) (difference in change: 0.9 points, p =.05, adjusted for baseline scores). No exercise effects on the disability score were observed. Consumption of enriched products did not affect performance, fitness, or disability scores. Conclusion: Our comprehensive exercise program, designed for widespread applicability, enhanced physical performance and fitness in a population of frail elderly. Daily consumption of micronutrient enriched foods showed no functional benefits within 17 weeks.

AB - Chin A Paw MJM, de Jong N, Schouten EG, Hiddink GJ, Kok FJ. Physical exercise and/or enriched foods for functional improvement in frail, independently living elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:811-7. Objective: To examine the effects of an exercise program and an enriched food regimen on physical functioning of frail elderly persons. Design: A 17-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Community. Participants: One hundred fifty-seven independently living frail elderly (mean age, 78.7 ± 5.6yr). Intervention: Thirty-nine subjects participated in a twice weekly group exercise designed to improve daily functioning; 39 subjects daily ate foods enriched with vitamins and minerals (at 25%-100% of the recommended daily allowances); 42 subjects exercised and ate enriched foods; and 37 subjects served as controls. Nonexercising groups followed a social program; nonsupplement groups received the same food products without the micronutrients. Main Outcome Measures: Functional performance based on 6 performance tests, physical fitness based on 7 fitness tests, and disabilities based on the self-reported ability to perform 16 daily activities. Results: Performance sum scores were significantly enhanced in trained (+8%) compared with nontrained subjects (−8%) (difference in change: 1.9 points, p <.001, adjusted for baseline scores). Fitness sum scores were significantly enhanced as well (+3% in trained vs −2% in nontrained) (difference in change: 0.9 points, p =.05, adjusted for baseline scores). No exercise effects on the disability score were observed. Consumption of enriched products did not affect performance, fitness, or disability scores. Conclusion: Our comprehensive exercise program, designed for widespread applicability, enhanced physical performance and fitness in a population of frail elderly. Daily consumption of micronutrient enriched foods showed no functional benefits within 17 weeks.

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