Physical characteristics of submicron emulsions upon partial displacement of whey protein by a small molecular weight surfactant and pectin addition

O. Kaltsa, P. Paximada, I. Mandala, E. Scholten

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

O/W emulsions (6% wt olive oil) were prepared at pH 3.3 using different WPI:Tween 20 weight ratios (1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 0:1) at 1% wt total concentration. The emulsion droplet size was found to decrease with an increase in Tween 20. A minimum droplet size of d3,2 300 nm was found for Tween systems alone, similar to that found (360 nm) for a 1:1 WPI:Tween 20 combination (p <0.05). This specific composition showed a value for the interfacial tension close to that of Tween 20 alone. However, the emulsions presented low stability regardless of the WPI:Tween 20 ratio. To increase their stability, pectin was added, in various concentrations (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% wt), using the Layer by Layer technique. In the presence of pectin, the ¿-potential of the oil droplets became negative; indicating that negatively charged pectin was absorbed onto the positively-charged droplet surface forming a secondary layer. The additional layer resulted in a wide range of emulsion stability. For all pectin concentrations, the 1:1 ratio of WPI:Tween 20 showed the highest stability. In most emulsions, extensive aggregation of oil droplets was observed, and their viscosity increased. Insufficient amounts of pectin to form the secondary layers led to bridging flocculation phenomena of oppositely charged pectin and proteins, leading to aggregation of the oil droplets. The higher the concentration of pectin, the greater the stability of the emulsion due to higher viscosity. All in all, the addition of a second layer consisting of pectin can be used to increase the stability of an emulsion containing emulsion droplets in the sub-micron range.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-408
JournalFood Research International
Volume66
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • in-water emulsions
  • protein/surfactant interfacial interactions
  • competitive adsorption
  • sodium caseinate
  • plus surfactant
  • rheological properties
  • stabilized emulsions
  • nonionic surfactant
  • chitosan complexes
  • milk-proteins

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