Phosphatidic acid: A multifunctional stress signaling lipid in plants

Christa Testerink, Teun Munnik*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

134 Citations (Scopus)


Phosphatidic acid (PA) has only recently been identified as an important signaling molecule in both plants and animals. Nonetheless, it already promises to rival the importance of the classic second messengers Ca2+ and cAMP. In plants, its formation is triggered in response to various biotic and abiotic stress factors, including pathogen infection, drought, salinity, wounding and cold. In general, PA signal production is fast (minutes) and transient. Recently, our understanding of the role of PA formation in stress responses as a result of phospholipases C and D activity has greatly increased. Moreover, the first protein targets of PA have been identified. Based on this recent work, potential mechanisms by which PA provokes downstream effects are emerging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)368-375
Number of pages8
JournalTrends in Plant Science
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2005
Externally publishedYes


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