To improve the health status (resilience) of dairy cows, levels of natural antibodies (NAb) might be useful. The objective of the present study was to compare levels and to estimate genetic parameters for NAb measured in milk and plasma samples. Titers of NAb IgM and IgG isotype-binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin of 2,919 cows, in both plasma and milk, were measured using ELISA. Analysis revealed that NAb levels in milk significantly increased with parity, whereas they remained constant in plasma. Moderate positive phenotypic correlations were found between NAb levels in milk and in plasma: 0.18 for IgG and 0.40 for IgM. This indicates that NAb from milk and plasma might reflect different aspects of dairy cow health status. However, high genetic correlations were found for NAb in milk and plasma: 0.81 for IgG and 0.79 for IgM. Heritabilities (SE in parentheses) for NAb measured in plasma [0.15 (0.05) for IgG and 0.25 (0.06) for IgM] were higher than heritabilities of NAb measured in milk [0.08 (0.03) for IgG and 0.23 (0.05) for IgM]. Our results indicate that NAb measured in milk and plasma are heritable and likely have a common genetic background, suggesting that NAb levels measured in milk might be useful for genetic improvement of disease resistance.