Phase II Metabolism of Hesperetin by Individual UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases and Sulfotransferases and Rat and Human Tissue Samples

W. Brand, M.G. Boersma, H. Bik, E.F. Hoek-van den Hil, J.J.M. Vervoort, D. Barron, W. Meinl, H. Glatt, G. Williamson, P.J. van Bladeren, I. Rietjens

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75 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Phase II metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and sulfotransferases (SULTs) is the predominant metabolic pathway during the first-pass metabolism of hesperetin (4'-methoxy-3',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone). In the present study, we have determined the kinetics for glucuronidation and sulfonation of hesperetin by 12 individual UGT and 12 individual SULT enzymes as well as by human or rat small intestinal, colonic, and hepatic microsomal and cytosolic fractions. Results demonstrate that hesperetin is conjugated at positions 7 and 3' and that major enzyme-specific differences in kinetics and regioselectivity for the UGT and SULT catalyzed conjugations exist. UGT1A9, UGT1A1, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, and UGT1A3 are the major enzymes catalyzing hesperetin glucuronidation, the latter only producing 7-O-glucuronide, whereas UGT1A7 produced mainly 3'-O-glucuronide. Furthermore, UGT1A6 and UGT2B4 only produce hesperetin 7-O-glucuronide, whereas UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7, and UGT2B15 conjugate both positions. SULT1A2 and SULT1A1 catalyze preferably and most efficiently the formation of hesperetin 3'-O-sulfate, and SULT1C4 catalyzes preferably and most efficiently the formation of hesperetin 7-O-sulfate. Based on expression levels SULT1A3 and SULT1B1 also will probably play a role in the sulfo-conjugation of hesperetin in vivo. The results help to explain discrepancies in metabolite patterns determined in tissues or systems with different expression of UGTs and SULTs, e.g., hepatic and intestinal fractions or Caco-2 cells. The incubations with rat and human tissue samples support an important role for intestinal cells during first-pass metabolism in the formation of hesperetin 3'-O-glucuronide and 7-O-glucuronide, which appear to be the major hesperetin metabolites found in vivo
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)617-625
Number of pages9
JournalDrug Metabolism and Disposition
Volume38
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Keywords

  • caco-2 cell monolayers
  • conjugated metabolites
  • gastrointestinal-tract
  • messenger-rna
  • orange juice
  • tc7 cells
  • identification
  • expression
  • bioavailability
  • flavanones

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