Pesticides in doormat and floor dust from homes close to treated fields: Spatio-temporal variance and determinants of occurrence and concentrations

Daniel M. Figueiredo*, Rosalie Nijssen, Esmeralda J.M. Krop, Daan Buijtenhuijs, Yvonne Gooijer, Luuk Lageschaar, Jan Duyzer, Anke Huss, Hans Mol, Roel C.H. Vermeulen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Indoor dust has been postulated as an important matrix for residential pesticide exposure. However, there is a lack of information on presence, concentrations and determinants of multiple pesticides in dust in residential homes close to treated fields. Our objective was to characterize the spatial and temporal variance of pesticides in house dust, study the use of doormats and floors as proxies for pesticides in indoor dust and identify determinants of occurrence and concentrations. Homes within 250 m from selected bulb fields were invited to participate. Homes within 20 km from these fields but not having agricultural fields within 500 m were selected as controls. House dust was vacuumed in all homes from floors (VFD) and from newly placed clean doormats (DDM). Sampling was done during two periods, when pesticides are used and not-used. For determination of 46 prioritized pesticides, a multi-residue extraction method was used. Most statistical analyses are focused on the 12 and 14 pesticides that were detected in >40% of DDM and VFD samples, respectively. Mixed models were used to evaluate relationships between possible determinants and pesticides occurrence and concentrations in DDM and VFD. 17 pesticides were detected in more than 50% of the homes in both matrixes. Concentrations differed by about a factor five between use and non-use periods among homes within 250 m of fields and between these homes and controls. For 7 pesticides there was a moderate to strong correlation (Spearman rho 0.30–0.75) between concentrations in DDM and VFD. Distance to agricultural fields and air concentrations were among the most relevant predictors for occurrence and levels of a given pesticide in DDM. Concentrations in dust are overall higher during application periods and closer to fields (<250 m) than further away. The omnipresence of pesticides in dust lead to residents being exposed all year round.

Original languageEnglish
Article number119024
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2022


  • Doormat
  • Exposure
  • Floor dust
  • Pesticides
  • Residents
  • Take-home


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