A values-centered leadership model comprised of leader stakeholder and economic values, follower values congruence, and responsible leadership outcomes was tested using data from 122 organizational leaders and 458 of their direct reports. Alleviating same-source bias concerns in leadership survey research, follower ratings of leadership style and follower ratings of values congruence and responsible leadership outcomes were collected from separate sources via the split-sample methodology. Results of structural equation modeling analyses demonstrated that leader stakeholder values predicted transformational leadership, whereas leader economic values were associated with transactional leadership. Follower values congruence was strongly associated with transformational leadership, unrelated to transactional leadership, and partially mediated the relationships between transformational leadership and both follower organizational citizenship behaviors and follower beliefs in the stakeholder view of corporate social responsibility. Implications for responsible leadership and transformational leadership theory, practice, and future research are discussed.
- achievement goals
Poortvliet, P. M., Anseel, F., Janssen, O., & van Yperen, N. W. (2012). Perverse effects of other-referenced performance goals in an information exchange context. Journal of Business Ethics, 106(4), 401-414. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-1005-8