Perspectives on Bivalves Providing Regulating Services in Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

Øivind Strand, Henrice M. Jansen, Zengjie Jiang, Shawn M.C. Robinson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


The concept of integrating species into one culture system originates from Asia and the Middle East. Development of integrated aquaculture involving marine bivalves is relatively new, going back to the late 1980s in China and 1990s in the Western world. In this chapter, we present four cases of integrated multi-trophic
aquaculture (IMTA) where bivalves are involved in providing regulating services: i) shrimp culture in ponds, ii) cascading pond systems, iii) open-water caged finfish culture and iv) bay-scale culture systems. The bay-scale integrated
culture system in Sanggou Bay in China represents commercial IMTA where a
range of different regulating services are provided by the bivalves. Bivalves use
degraded fragments derived from cultured kelp and organic waste products from
fish farming, and play an important role in the ecosystem processes of the bay. The provision of regulating services in shrimp and cascading ponds is evident as the system configurations allow for biogeochemical processing of waste to maximize extraction by the bivalves. The current configurations used in open-water finfish cage culture suggest that adaptation of concepts allowing for control of effluent water, producing longer contact times and increased biogeochemical processing of the waste products, will dominate future IMTA development. If global bivalve culture production is sustained, we will likely see more regulating services from bivalves in IMTA systems, as new opportunities may arise for developing novel IMTA configurations and concepts
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGoods and Services of Marine Bivalves
EditorsAad C. Smaal, Joao G. Ferreira, Jon Grant, Jens K. Petersen, Øivind Strand
ISBN (Electronic)9783319967769
ISBN (Print)9783319967752
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Biogeochemical processing
  • Extraction efficiency
  • IMTA
  • Sequential culture
  • Waste recirculation


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