Alternative and renewable sources of energy have received much attention and there are a number of approaches: wind, hydro, solar nuclear and the use of biomass. Here discussion will focus on the use of biomass, however there are a number of alternative methods in applying this as a source of “energy”. For example incineration (to generate heat and electricity), production of biodiesel and biomass to liquids (BTL) by chemical and thermal based processes respectively and the production of bioethanol and biogas using biotechnology. However the use of biomass for non-food applications raises a number of important issues which need to be considered for any conversion process such as: food production and price increases, destruction of the rainforest and greenhouse gases. Strategies which circumvent these should be explored and one potential route is the use of waste lignocellulose biomass (derived from primary agricultural practice) and its application for energy and fuels.