Performance of an environmentally benign acid base flow battery at high energy density

W.J. van Egmond, M. Saakes, I. Noor, S. Porada, C.J.N. Buisman*, H.V.M. Hamelers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


An increasing fraction of energy is generated by intermittent sources such as wind and sun. A straightforward solution to keep the electricity grid reliable is the connection of large-scale electricity storage to this grid. Current battery storage technologies, while providing promising energy and power densities, suffer from a large environmental footprint, safety issues, and technological challenges. In this paper, the acid base flow battery is re-established as an environmental friendly means of storing electricity using electrolyte consisting of NaCl salt. To achieve a high specific energy, we have performed charge and discharge cycles over the entire pH range (0–14) at several current densities. We demonstrate stable performance at high energy density (2.9 Wh L−1). Main energy dissipation occurs by unwanted proton and hydroxyl ion transport and leads to low coulombic efficiencies (13%–27%).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1524-1535
JournalInternational Journal of Energy Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2018


  • acid base flow battery
  • bipolar membrane
  • co-ion transport
  • energy efficiency
  • ion exchange membranes
  • renewable energy storage
  • sustainable materials

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