A Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (Plant-MFCs) has been studied both in the lab and in a field. So far, field studies were limited to a more conventional Plant-MFC design, which submerges the anode in the soil and places the cathode above the soil surface. However, for a large scale application a tubular Plant-MFC is considered more practical since it needs no topsoil excavation. In this study, 1 m length tubular design Plant-MFC was installed in triplicate in a paddy field located in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The Plant-MFC reactors were operated for four growing seasons. The rice paddy was grown in a standard cultivation process without any additional treatment due to the reactor instalation. An online data acquisition using LoRa technology was developed to investigate the performance of the tubular Plant-MFC over the final whole rice paddy growing season. Overall, the four crop seasons, the Plant-MFC installation did not show a complete detrimental negative effect on rice paddy growth. Based on continuous data analysis during the fourth crop season, a continuous electricity generation was achieved during a wet period in the crop season. Electricity generation dynamics were observed before, during and after the wet periods that were explained by paddy field management. A maximum daily average density from the triplicate Plant-MFCs reached 9.6 mW/m2 plant growth area. In one crop season, 9.5-15 Wh/m2 electricity can be continuously generated at an average of 0.4 ± 0.1 mW per meter tube. The Plant-MFC also shows a potential to be used as a bio sensor, e.g., rain event indicator, during a dry period between the crop seasons.
- Bioelectrochemical system
- Paddy fields
- Plant;microbial fuel cell
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Soil Microbial Communities on the anode and 2-m distance of Tubular Plant Microbial Fuel Cell in a Paddy Field in West Kalimantan, Indonesia