Pectin-coated titanium implants are well-tolerated in vivo

H. Kokkonen, H. Niiranen, H.A. Schols, M. Morra, F. Stenback, J. Tuukkanen

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16 Citations (Scopus)


Multiform coated titanium implants are widely used in orthopedic and dental surgery. In this study, we have investigated the reactivity of pectin-coated titanium samples implanted under the latissimus dorsi—muscle fascia of rats. Samples were coated with two enzyme treated apple pectins; modified hairy regions (MHR-A and MHR-B) that differed in chemical structure. Aminated (AMI) and uncoated titanium (Ti) served as controls. The thicknesses of the peri-implant fibrous tissue capsules formed 1 or 3 weeks after implantation were measured as indicative of possible inflammatory reactions toward the biomaterials. After 1 week, the MHR-B implant was surrounded by a thicker fibrous capsule (42.9 µm) than any of the other sample types: MHR-A (33.2 µm), AMI (32.5 µm), and Ti (32.3 µm), the last one being the only statistically significant difference. After 3 weeks, however, this difference disappeared; the capsule thicknesses around MHR-B and Ti implants had decreased to the values found for AMI and MHR-A. Additionally, the capsule formation represents merely a stromal rather than an inflammatory reaction, as indicated by the absence of activated macrophages or foreign body giant cells in the capsules. These results indicate for the first time the in vivo tolerability of covalently linked pectins, and suggest the feasibility of pectin-coated bone and dental implants for clinical use.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1404-1409
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • enzymatically-tailored pectins
  • resistant acid-phosphatase
  • hairy regions
  • citrus pectin
  • cell
  • fibroblasts
  • degradation
  • expression
  • responses
  • adhesion


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