In wild pea varieties two genes, sym1 and sym2, have been identified that cause resistance to European Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae (Rlv) strains. The sym2 gene has previously been studied in some detail and it was shown that the additional nodulation gene nodX is sufficient to overcome the sym2 controlled nodulation resistance. Here we characterize the sym1 gene. We show that the resistance conferred by sym1 can be overcome by the introduction of nodX in European Rlv strains, indicating that sym1 just as sym2 is involved in Nod factor recognition. Both sym1 and sym2 display a recessive or dominant nature depending on the Rlv strain used for inoculation. Furthermore, introgression lines containing either sym1 or sym2 are able to form nodules with Rlv strain 248 at 26°C, but not at 18°C, indicating that both sym1 and sym2 have a temperature sensitive nature. sym2 was mapped on the pea RFLP map. We found that sym1 maps in the same region of chromosome 1 as sym2. By crossing sym1 and sym2 containing introgression lines we demonstrate that sym1 and sym2 are allelic.
Kozik, A., Heidstra, R., Horvath, B., Kulikova, O., Tikhonovich, I., Noel Ellis, T. H., ... Bisseling, T. (1995). Pea lines carrying sym1 or sym2 can be nodulated by Rhizobium strains containing nodX; sym1 and sym2 are allelic. Plant Science, 108, 41-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-9452(95)04123-C