Materials and Methods: The diversity, aims and defining characteristics of a partnership approach are based on an extensive literature review.
Results: Partnerships focus on diverse aspects and delivery phases of UF, ranging from the planning, design and creation of urban forests and GI to their management and use. Benefits delivered by such partnerships include environmental and economic services as well as social and cultural services such as environmental education, health, leisure and tourism. Generating valuable services whilst at the same time nurturing relationships between stakeholders helps to develop social capital and build capacity. In addition to environmental, economic and social benefits, the evaluation of partnerships may also address internal process variables such as social learning, the relationship between partners, and motivational outcomes that can influence future co-operation.
Conclusions: Co-operative partnerships offer a promising approach for delivery in UF. The development of relationships between partners maximises the potential for developing effective long term co-operation and for building social capital as an aid to the promotion of sustainable development.