PA, a stress-induced short cut to switch-on ethylene signalling by switching-off CTR1?

Christa Testerink*, Paul B. Larsen, Fionn McLoughlin, Dieuwertje Van Der Does, John A.J. Van Himbergen, Teun Munnik

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1) is a protein kinase that represses plant responses to ethylene. Recently, we have shown that CTR1 function is negatively regulated by the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) in vitro. PA was shown to inhibit (1) CTR1's protein kinase activity, (2) the intramolecular interaction between N-terminus and kinase domain, and (3) the interaction of CTR1 with the ethylene receptor ETR1. PA typically accumulates within minutes in response to biotic or abiotic stresses, which are known to induce ethylene formation. Although long-term treatment with ethephon does stimulate PA accumulation, our results show no fast increase in PA in response to ethylene. A speculative model is presented which explains how stress-induced PA formation could switch on downstream ethylene responses via interaction of the lipid with CTR1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)681-683
Number of pages3
JournalPlant Signaling and Behavior
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Constitutive triple response 1
  • Ethylene
  • Lipid signaling
  • Phosphatidic acid
  • Phospholipase D
  • Plant stress signaling
  • Protein kinase

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