The demand for an effective and low cost means of fertility control of domestic animals has raised interest in the development of contraceptive vaccines. A promising candidate for a vaccine component is the brain peptide gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), which plays a central role in the regulation of reproductive functions in vertebrates. Neutralization of GnRH by vaccine-induced antibodies is expected to prevent the reproductive activity in a wide range of species. A GnRH-protein conjugate was prepared by means of recombinant DNA technology. The oligonucleotides encoding GnRH were inserted in hypervariable regions of the subunit gene of P-fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Hybrid fimbriae encoded by the manipulated fimbrial gene clusters were expressed efficiently on the cell surface of Escherichia coli. Vaccination of female rats and bull calves with purified hybrid GnRH-fimbriae strongly affected the reproductive characteristics. We conclude that P-fimbriae represent a very attractive carrier system for application of GnRH in a new type of vaccine.