Fungi are main lignin degraders and the edible white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, inhabits lignocellulose-rich environments. Previous research hinted at delignification when A. bisporus colonized pre-composted wheat straw-based substrate in an industrial setting, assumed to aid subsequent release of monosaccharides from (hemi-)cellulose to form fruiting bodies. Yet, structural changes and specific quantification of lignin throughout A. bisporus mycelial growth remain largely unresolved. To elucidate A. bisporus routes of delignification, at six timepoints throughout mycelial growth (15 days), substrate was collected, fractionated, and analyzed by quantitative pyrolysis-GC–MS, 2D-HSQC NMR, and SEC. Lignin decrease was highest between day 6 and day 10 and reached in total 42 % (w/w). The substantial delignification was accompanied by extensive structural changes of residual lignin, including increased syringyl to guaiacyl (S/G) ratios, accumulated oxidized moieties, and depleted intact interunit linkages. Hydroxypropiovanillone and hydroxypropiosyringone (HPV/S) subunits accumulated, which are indicative for β-|O-4′ ether cleavage and imply a laccase-driven ligninolysis. We provide compelling evidence that A. bisporus is capable of extensive lignin removal, have obtained insights into mechanisms at play and susceptibilities of various substructures, thus we were contributing to understanding fungal lignin conversion.
|Journal||International Journal of Biological Macromolecules|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Aug 2023|
- Agaricus bisporus
- HSQC NMR
- Lignin removal