Origin and diversification of the Greater Cape flora: Ancient species repository, hot-bed of recent radiation, or both?

A.G. Verboom, J.K. Arhcibald, F.T. Bakker, D.U. Bellstedt, F. Conrad, L.L. Dreyer, F. Forest, C. Galley, P. Goldblatt, J.F. Henning, K. Mummenhoff, H.P. Linder, A.M. Muasya, K.C. Oberlander, V. Savolainen, D.A. Snijmanm, T. van der Niet, T.L. Nowell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

138 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Like island-endemic taxa, whose origins are expected to postdate the appearance of the islands on which they occur, biome-endemic taxa should be younger than the biomes to which they are endemic. Accordingly, the ages of biome-endemic lineages may offer insights into biome history. In this study, we used the ages of multiple lineages to explore the origin and diversification of two southern African biomes whose remarkable floristic richness and endemism has identified them as global biodiversity hotspots (succulent karoo and fynbos). We used parsimony optimization to identify succulent karoo- and fynbos-endemic lineages across 17 groups of plants, for which dated phylogenies had been inferred using a relaxed Bayesian (BEAST) approach. All succulent karoo-endemic lineages were less than 17.5 My old, the majority being younger than 10 My. This is largely consistent with suggestions that this biome is the product of recent radiation, probably triggered by climatic deterioration since the late Miocene. In contrast, fynbos-endemic lineages showed a broader age distribution, with some lineages originating in the Oligocene, but most being more recent. Also, in groups having both succulent karoo- and fynbos-endemic lineages, there was a tendency for the latter to be older. These patterns reflect the greater antiquity of fynbos, but also indicate considerable recent speciation, probably through a combination of climatically-induced refugium fragmentation and adaptive radiation
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-53
JournalMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Volume51
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Fingerprint

fynbos
biome
repository
Ecosystem
flora
Radiation
ecosystems
Islands
adaptive radiation
Bayes Theorem
Biodiversity
Age Distribution
endemism
Phylogeny
refugium
refuge habitats
floristics
age structure
radiation
Oligocene

Keywords

  • grass genus ehrharta
  • south-africa
  • dna-sequences
  • biodiversity hotspots
  • divergence times
  • moraea iridaceae
  • evolution
  • phylogeny
  • systematics
  • history

Cite this

Verboom, A.G. ; Arhcibald, J.K. ; Bakker, F.T. ; Bellstedt, D.U. ; Conrad, F. ; Dreyer, L.L. ; Forest, F. ; Galley, C. ; Goldblatt, P. ; Henning, J.F. ; Mummenhoff, K. ; Linder, H.P. ; Muasya, A.M. ; Oberlander, K.C. ; Savolainen, V. ; Snijmanm, D.A. ; van der Niet, T. ; Nowell, T.L. / Origin and diversification of the Greater Cape flora: Ancient species repository, hot-bed of recent radiation, or both?. In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 2009 ; Vol. 51, No. 1. pp. 44-53.
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title = "Origin and diversification of the Greater Cape flora: Ancient species repository, hot-bed of recent radiation, or both?",
abstract = "Like island-endemic taxa, whose origins are expected to postdate the appearance of the islands on which they occur, biome-endemic taxa should be younger than the biomes to which they are endemic. Accordingly, the ages of biome-endemic lineages may offer insights into biome history. In this study, we used the ages of multiple lineages to explore the origin and diversification of two southern African biomes whose remarkable floristic richness and endemism has identified them as global biodiversity hotspots (succulent karoo and fynbos). We used parsimony optimization to identify succulent karoo- and fynbos-endemic lineages across 17 groups of plants, for which dated phylogenies had been inferred using a relaxed Bayesian (BEAST) approach. All succulent karoo-endemic lineages were less than 17.5 My old, the majority being younger than 10 My. This is largely consistent with suggestions that this biome is the product of recent radiation, probably triggered by climatic deterioration since the late Miocene. In contrast, fynbos-endemic lineages showed a broader age distribution, with some lineages originating in the Oligocene, but most being more recent. Also, in groups having both succulent karoo- and fynbos-endemic lineages, there was a tendency for the latter to be older. These patterns reflect the greater antiquity of fynbos, but also indicate considerable recent speciation, probably through a combination of climatically-induced refugium fragmentation and adaptive radiation",
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author = "A.G. Verboom and J.K. Arhcibald and F.T. Bakker and D.U. Bellstedt and F. Conrad and L.L. Dreyer and F. Forest and C. Galley and P. Goldblatt and J.F. Henning and K. Mummenhoff and H.P. Linder and A.M. Muasya and K.C. Oberlander and V. Savolainen and D.A. Snijmanm and {van der Niet}, T. and T.L. Nowell",
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Verboom, AG, Arhcibald, JK, Bakker, FT, Bellstedt, DU, Conrad, F, Dreyer, LL, Forest, F, Galley, C, Goldblatt, P, Henning, JF, Mummenhoff, K, Linder, HP, Muasya, AM, Oberlander, KC, Savolainen, V, Snijmanm, DA, van der Niet, T & Nowell, TL 2009, 'Origin and diversification of the Greater Cape flora: Ancient species repository, hot-bed of recent radiation, or both?', Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 44-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2008.01.037

Origin and diversification of the Greater Cape flora: Ancient species repository, hot-bed of recent radiation, or both? / Verboom, A.G.; Arhcibald, J.K.; Bakker, F.T.; Bellstedt, D.U.; Conrad, F.; Dreyer, L.L.; Forest, F.; Galley, C.; Goldblatt, P.; Henning, J.F.; Mummenhoff, K.; Linder, H.P.; Muasya, A.M.; Oberlander, K.C.; Savolainen, V.; Snijmanm, D.A.; van der Niet, T.; Nowell, T.L.

In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2009, p. 44-53.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Origin and diversification of the Greater Cape flora: Ancient species repository, hot-bed of recent radiation, or both?

AU - Verboom, A.G.

AU - Arhcibald, J.K.

AU - Bakker, F.T.

AU - Bellstedt, D.U.

AU - Conrad, F.

AU - Dreyer, L.L.

AU - Forest, F.

AU - Galley, C.

AU - Goldblatt, P.

AU - Henning, J.F.

AU - Mummenhoff, K.

AU - Linder, H.P.

AU - Muasya, A.M.

AU - Oberlander, K.C.

AU - Savolainen, V.

AU - Snijmanm, D.A.

AU - van der Niet, T.

AU - Nowell, T.L.

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Like island-endemic taxa, whose origins are expected to postdate the appearance of the islands on which they occur, biome-endemic taxa should be younger than the biomes to which they are endemic. Accordingly, the ages of biome-endemic lineages may offer insights into biome history. In this study, we used the ages of multiple lineages to explore the origin and diversification of two southern African biomes whose remarkable floristic richness and endemism has identified them as global biodiversity hotspots (succulent karoo and fynbos). We used parsimony optimization to identify succulent karoo- and fynbos-endemic lineages across 17 groups of plants, for which dated phylogenies had been inferred using a relaxed Bayesian (BEAST) approach. All succulent karoo-endemic lineages were less than 17.5 My old, the majority being younger than 10 My. This is largely consistent with suggestions that this biome is the product of recent radiation, probably triggered by climatic deterioration since the late Miocene. In contrast, fynbos-endemic lineages showed a broader age distribution, with some lineages originating in the Oligocene, but most being more recent. Also, in groups having both succulent karoo- and fynbos-endemic lineages, there was a tendency for the latter to be older. These patterns reflect the greater antiquity of fynbos, but also indicate considerable recent speciation, probably through a combination of climatically-induced refugium fragmentation and adaptive radiation

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KW - grass genus ehrharta

KW - south-africa

KW - dna-sequences

KW - biodiversity hotspots

KW - divergence times

KW - moraea iridaceae

KW - evolution

KW - phylogeny

KW - systematics

KW - history

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DO - 10.1016/j.ympev.2008.01.037

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JF - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

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