Organic modification and subsequent biofunctionalization of porous anodic alumina using terminal alkynes

J. ter Maat, R. Regeling, C.J. Ingham, C.A.G.M. Weijers, M. Giesbers, W.M. de Vos, H. Zuilhof

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26 Citations (Scopus)


Porous anodic alumina (PAA) is a well-defined material that has found many applications. The range of applications toward sensing and recognition can be greatly expanded if the alumina surface is covalently modified with an organic monolayer. Here, we present a new method for the organic modification of PAA based on the reaction of terminal alkynes with the alumina surface. The reaction results in the the formation of a monolayer within several hours at 80 °C and is dependent on both oxygen and light. Characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy indicates formation of a well-defined monolayer in which the adsorbed species is an oxidation product of the 1-alkyne, namely, its a-hydroxy carboxylate. The obtained monolayers are fairly stable in water and at elevated temperatures, as was shown by monitoring the water contact angle. Modification with 1,15-hexadecadiyne resulted in a surface that has alkyne end groups available for further reaction, as was demonstrated by the subsequent reaction of N-(11-azido-3,6,9-trioxaundecyl)trifluoroacetamide with the modified surface. Biofunctionalization was explored by coupling 11-azidoundecyl lactoside to the surface and studying the subsequent adsorption of the lectin peanut agglutinin (PNA) and the yeast Candida albicans , respectively. Selective and reversible binding of PNA to the lactosylated surfaces was demonstrated. Moreover, PNA adsorption was higher on surfaces that exposed the ß-lactoside than on those that displayed the a anomer, which was attributed to surface-associated steric hindrance. Likewise, the lactosylated surfaces showed increased colonization of C. albicans compared to unmodified surfaces, presumably due to interactions involving the cell wall ß-glucan. Thus, this study provides a new modification method for PAA surfaces and shows that it can be used to induce selective adsorption of proteins and microorganisms
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13606-13617
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • ultraviolet difference spectroscopy
  • normal-alkanoic acids
  • coated glass slides
  • candida-albicans
  • cell-wall
  • molecular assemblies
  • peanut agglutinin
  • carbohydrate interactions
  • carbon nanotubes
  • oxide membranes

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