Orangutans venture out of the rainforest and into the anthropocene

Stephanie N. Spehar*, Douglas Sheil, Terry Harrison, Julien Louys, Marc Ancrenaz, Andrew J. Marshall, Serge A. Wich, Michael W. Bruford, Erik Meijaard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Conservation benefits from understanding how adaptability and threat interact to determine a taxon’s vulnerability. Recognizing how interactions with humans have shaped taxa such as the critically endangered orangutan (Pongo spp.) offers insights into this relationship. Orangutans are viewed as icons of wild nature, and most efforts to prevent their extinction have focused on protecting minimally disturbed habitat, with limited success. We synthesize fossil, archeological, genetic, and behavioral evidence to demonstrate that at least 70,000 years of human influence have shaped orangutan distribution, abundance, and ecology and will likely continue to do so in the future. Our findings indicate that orangutans are vulnerable to hunting but appear flexible in response to some other human activities. This highlights the need for a multifaceted, landscape-level approach to orangutan conservation that leverages sound policy and cooperation among government, private sector, and community stakeholders to prevent hunting, mitigate human-orangutan conflict, and preserve and reconnect remaining natural forests. Broad cooperation can be encouraged through incentives and strategies that focus on the common interests and concerns of different stakeholders. Orangutans provide an illustrative example of how acknowledging the long and pervasive influence of humans can improve strategies to preserve biodiversity in the Anthropocene.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1701422
JournalScience Advances
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jun 2018
Externally publishedYes


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