An altered intestinal microbiota composition is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We previously identified increased intestinal levels of Eubacterium hallii, an anaerobic bacterium belonging to the butyrate-producing Lachnospiraceae family, in metabolic syndrome subjects who received a faecal transplant from a lean donor. To further assess the effects of E. hallii on insulin sensitivity, we orally treated obese and diabetic db/db mice with alive E. hallii and glycerol or heatinactive E. hallii as control. Insulin tolerance tests and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp experiments revealed that alive E. hallii treatment improved insulin sensitivity compared control treatment. In addition, E. hallii treatment increased energy expenditure in db/db mice. Active E. hallii treatment was found to increase faecal butyrate concentrations and to modify bile acid metabolism compared with heat-inactivated controls. Our data suggest that E. hallii administration potentially alters the function of the intestinal microbiome and that microbial metabolites may contribute to the improved metabolic phenotype.