Optimization of salt adsorption rate in membrane capacitive deionization

R. Zhao, O.A. Satpradit, H. Rijnaarts, P.M. Biesheuvel, A. van der Wal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

263 Citations (Scopus)


Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a water desalination technique based on applying a cell voltage between two oppositely placed porous electrodes sandwiching a spacer channel that transports the water to be desalinated. In MCDI, ion-exchange membranes are positioned in front of each porous electrode to prevent co-ions from leaving the electrode region during ion adsorption, thereby enhancing the salt adsorption capacity. MCDI can be operated at constant cell voltage (CV), or at a constant electrical current (CC). In this paper, we present both experimental and theoretical results for desalination capacity and rate in MCDI (both in the CV- and the CC-mode) as function of adsorption/desorption time, salt feed concentration, electrical current, and cell voltage. We demonstrate how by varying each parameter individually, it is possible to systematically optimize the parameter settings of a given system to achieve the highest average salt adsorption rate and water recovery.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1941-1952
JournalWater Research
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • water quality
  • water
  • recovery
  • desalination
  • ionization
  • ion exchange treatment
  • membranes
  • ion-exchange membranes
  • porous-electrodes
  • water desalination
  • brackish-water
  • transport-properties
  • carbon
  • electrochemistry
  • performance
  • efficiency
  • anions


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