In this concept paper, we have developed three case scenarios to illustrate how one can derive a Microbiological Criterion (MC) from a Performance Objective (PO) or from a Food Safety Objective (FSO). In the first scenario, we show how one can derive an MC from a PO that is set as a numerical limit to the concentration of a pathogen. In the second scenario, it is shown how one can derive an MC from a PO that is set as the limit to the prevalence or proportion of a microorganism. In the final scenario, we show how to derive an MC from an FSO for a product supporting growth of the target pathogen between the PO and FSO. These case scenarios present guidance on how to derive an MC from risk-based metrics and very explicitly detail all the steps to be taken and assumptions/decisions that need to be made. In all three cases, MCs could successfully be established, but to do so required specific data, assumptions and decisions, as appropriate.