Operational efficiency of ballast water biocides at low water temperatures

N.H.B.M. Kaag, A.C. Sneekes

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional


In the period 2013-2015 the effect of two biocides used for the treatment of ballast water has been evaluated at low ambient temperatures. Peraclean® Ocean and sodium hypochlorite were used as biocides. Most of the tests were conducted during winter and early spring at the laboratories of IMARES in Den Helder, using outdoor cultures from which phytoplankton and zooplankton (as communities) were collected for the tests. In summer 2013, tests were also conducted at Svalbard in the Arctic using natural zooplankton. Here only Peraclean® Ocean was tested.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationDen Helder
Number of pages22
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Publication series

NameReport / IMARES Wageningen UR


  • water transport
  • ships
  • water ballasting
  • introduced species
  • water treatment
  • oceans
  • canada


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