Ontwikkelingsmogelijkheden van cooperatieve organisaties voor den verkoop van ooft in Nederlandsch-Indie

E.L. Levie

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU


The scope for co-operatives for fruit marketing was considered in view of the development of orchards from kitchen gardens to commercial production, with fewer types of fruit trees or even monoculture. Such specialization had not then proceeded far, so that little fruit was supplied by each grower and it varied widely in quality in the markets. Much fruit was sold on the tree, representing a considerable credit. Fruit was an important source of ready money for the farmers either as producers or as middlemen. A review was given of fruitmarketing co-operatives in the world with special reference to the United States and the Netherlands.

The possible task and conditions for co-operatives in the Netherlands East Indies were considered but the author concluded that difficulties of standardization, credit and managerial skill were still almost insurmountable. Yet co-operatives could have been of great help to improve the status of the growers.

Original languageDutch
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Wageningen University
  • Sprenger, A.M., Promotor, External person
Award date31 May 1938
Place of PublicationWageningen
Publication statusPublished - 1938
Externally publishedYes


  • fruit growing
  • cooperatives
  • economic situation
  • cooperative societies
  • economic production
  • netherlands east indies

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