On the introduction of genetically modified bananas in Uganda: social benefits, costs, and consumer preferences

E.M. Kikulwe

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WUAcademic

Abstract

Agriculture is the mainstay for the great majority of rural people in most African countries
and is essential for poverty reduction and food security. The role of agriculture towards
poverty reduction, however, has not been realized in Africa, despite advances in development
of technologies such as improved varieties suitable to local conditions and resistant to pests,
diseases and droughts stresses. Plant breeding using modern biotechnology and genetic
modification in particular has the potential of speeding-up crop improvement. However, the
central issue in agricultural biotechnology particularly in Africa is to achieve a functional
biosafety system to ensure that a country has the capacity to assess risks that may be associated
with modern biotechnology. Several countries have designed and implemented policies to address
the safety concerns of consumers and producers, including environment and food safety. One of
the requirements, as proposed in Article 2 of the Cartagena Protocol, is the inclusion of
socioeconomic considerations in the biosafety assessment process. Many developing countries,
including Uganda, have not determined whether and how to include socioeconomic
considerations. Specifically, at what stage of the regulatory process should they be included, the
involved scope, as well as the nature of the decision-making process within the biosafety
regulations. The aim of my thesis is to examine potential social welfare impacts of introducing a
GM banana in order to illustrate the relevance of socioeconomic analyses for supporting
biotechnology decision-making and in particular the importance of consumer perceptions but
also for contributing to the development and implementation of biosafety regulations. I
present a general approach using GM banana as an example, while assuming the GM banana
has passed standard food and biosafety safety assessments, i.e. can be considered to be safe. I
explore the benefit-cost trade-offs of its introduction and the farmers’ and consumers’
willingness to pay for the technology and the end product. In the study I present a framework
for considering concerns about genetically modified crops within a socioeconomic analysis of GM
crops, using real options and choice experiment approaches. The approaches relate the economic
benefits to consumers’ concerns. The results show that the introduction of GM bananas would be
desirable for the Ugandan society as a whole, mainly benefit poor rural households and would
merit policy support. Nevertheless, if such a GM banana is introduced its introduction may
result in strong opposition from the opponent segment of the population, which is composed
of mainly urban consumers with an on average higher education and income. Interestingly
and in contradiction to common wisdom only providing additional information about the
technology and its safety will not result in higher acceptance. Based on this case study
biosafety regulators would need to consider these socioeconomic effects before a decision to
introduce a GM banana is made. However, the decision to consider socioeconomic impacts
for other GM crops elsewhere depends on the crop and the country. The research
methodology in this thesis provides the basis for assessing other GM crops as well.
LanguageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Wageningen University
Supervisors/Advisors
  • van Ierland, Ekko, Promotor
  • Wesseler, Justus, Co-promotor
  • Falck-Zepeda, J.B., Co-promotor, External person
Award date19 Mar 2010
Place of Publication[S.l.
Publisher
Print ISBNs9789085856108
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Fingerprint

biosafety
biotechnology
crop
safety
poverty
welfare impact
decision making
crop improvement
socioeconomic impact
agriculture
plant breeding
food safety
drought stress
willingness to pay
higher education
food security
cost-benefit
developing world
socioeconomics
income

Keywords

  • bananas
  • musa
  • biosafety
  • genetic engineering
  • genetic transformation
  • social benefits
  • consumer attitudes
  • consumers
  • consumer preferences
  • costs
  • crops
  • uganda

Cite this

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title = "On the introduction of genetically modified bananas in Uganda: social benefits, costs, and consumer preferences",
abstract = "Agriculture is the mainstay for the great majority of rural people in most African countries and is essential for poverty reduction and food security. The role of agriculture towards poverty reduction, however, has not been realized in Africa, despite advances in development of technologies such as improved varieties suitable to local conditions and resistant to pests, diseases and droughts stresses. Plant breeding using modern biotechnology and genetic modification in particular has the potential of speeding-up crop improvement. However, the central issue in agricultural biotechnology particularly in Africa is to achieve a functional biosafety system to ensure that a country has the capacity to assess risks that may be associated with modern biotechnology. Several countries have designed and implemented policies to address the safety concerns of consumers and producers, including environment and food safety. One of the requirements, as proposed in Article 2 of the Cartagena Protocol, is the inclusion of socioeconomic considerations in the biosafety assessment process. Many developing countries, including Uganda, have not determined whether and how to include socioeconomic considerations. Specifically, at what stage of the regulatory process should they be included, the involved scope, as well as the nature of the decision-making process within the biosafety regulations. The aim of my thesis is to examine potential social welfare impacts of introducing a GM banana in order to illustrate the relevance of socioeconomic analyses for supporting biotechnology decision-making and in particular the importance of consumer perceptions but also for contributing to the development and implementation of biosafety regulations. I present a general approach using GM banana as an example, while assuming the GM banana has passed standard food and biosafety safety assessments, i.e. can be considered to be safe. I explore the benefit-cost trade-offs of its introduction and the farmers’ and consumers’ willingness to pay for the technology and the end product. In the study I present a framework for considering concerns about genetically modified crops within a socioeconomic analysis of GM crops, using real options and choice experiment approaches. The approaches relate the economic benefits to consumers’ concerns. The results show that the introduction of GM bananas would be desirable for the Ugandan society as a whole, mainly benefit poor rural households and would merit policy support. Nevertheless, if such a GM banana is introduced its introduction may result in strong opposition from the opponent segment of the population, which is composed of mainly urban consumers with an on average higher education and income. Interestingly and in contradiction to common wisdom only providing additional information about the technology and its safety will not result in higher acceptance. Based on this case study biosafety regulators would need to consider these socioeconomic effects before a decision to introduce a GM banana is made. However, the decision to consider socioeconomic impacts for other GM crops elsewhere depends on the crop and the country. The research methodology in this thesis provides the basis for assessing other GM crops as well.",
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author = "E.M. Kikulwe",
note = "WU thesis 4785",
year = "2010",
language = "English",
isbn = "9789085856108",
publisher = "S.n.",
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}

On the introduction of genetically modified bananas in Uganda: social benefits, costs, and consumer preferences. / Kikulwe, E.M.

[S.l. : S.n., 2010. 198 p.

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WUAcademic

TY - THES

T1 - On the introduction of genetically modified bananas in Uganda: social benefits, costs, and consumer preferences

AU - Kikulwe, E.M.

N1 - WU thesis 4785

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Agriculture is the mainstay for the great majority of rural people in most African countries and is essential for poverty reduction and food security. The role of agriculture towards poverty reduction, however, has not been realized in Africa, despite advances in development of technologies such as improved varieties suitable to local conditions and resistant to pests, diseases and droughts stresses. Plant breeding using modern biotechnology and genetic modification in particular has the potential of speeding-up crop improvement. However, the central issue in agricultural biotechnology particularly in Africa is to achieve a functional biosafety system to ensure that a country has the capacity to assess risks that may be associated with modern biotechnology. Several countries have designed and implemented policies to address the safety concerns of consumers and producers, including environment and food safety. One of the requirements, as proposed in Article 2 of the Cartagena Protocol, is the inclusion of socioeconomic considerations in the biosafety assessment process. Many developing countries, including Uganda, have not determined whether and how to include socioeconomic considerations. Specifically, at what stage of the regulatory process should they be included, the involved scope, as well as the nature of the decision-making process within the biosafety regulations. The aim of my thesis is to examine potential social welfare impacts of introducing a GM banana in order to illustrate the relevance of socioeconomic analyses for supporting biotechnology decision-making and in particular the importance of consumer perceptions but also for contributing to the development and implementation of biosafety regulations. I present a general approach using GM banana as an example, while assuming the GM banana has passed standard food and biosafety safety assessments, i.e. can be considered to be safe. I explore the benefit-cost trade-offs of its introduction and the farmers’ and consumers’ willingness to pay for the technology and the end product. In the study I present a framework for considering concerns about genetically modified crops within a socioeconomic analysis of GM crops, using real options and choice experiment approaches. The approaches relate the economic benefits to consumers’ concerns. The results show that the introduction of GM bananas would be desirable for the Ugandan society as a whole, mainly benefit poor rural households and would merit policy support. Nevertheless, if such a GM banana is introduced its introduction may result in strong opposition from the opponent segment of the population, which is composed of mainly urban consumers with an on average higher education and income. Interestingly and in contradiction to common wisdom only providing additional information about the technology and its safety will not result in higher acceptance. Based on this case study biosafety regulators would need to consider these socioeconomic effects before a decision to introduce a GM banana is made. However, the decision to consider socioeconomic impacts for other GM crops elsewhere depends on the crop and the country. The research methodology in this thesis provides the basis for assessing other GM crops as well.

AB - Agriculture is the mainstay for the great majority of rural people in most African countries and is essential for poverty reduction and food security. The role of agriculture towards poverty reduction, however, has not been realized in Africa, despite advances in development of technologies such as improved varieties suitable to local conditions and resistant to pests, diseases and droughts stresses. Plant breeding using modern biotechnology and genetic modification in particular has the potential of speeding-up crop improvement. However, the central issue in agricultural biotechnology particularly in Africa is to achieve a functional biosafety system to ensure that a country has the capacity to assess risks that may be associated with modern biotechnology. Several countries have designed and implemented policies to address the safety concerns of consumers and producers, including environment and food safety. One of the requirements, as proposed in Article 2 of the Cartagena Protocol, is the inclusion of socioeconomic considerations in the biosafety assessment process. Many developing countries, including Uganda, have not determined whether and how to include socioeconomic considerations. Specifically, at what stage of the regulatory process should they be included, the involved scope, as well as the nature of the decision-making process within the biosafety regulations. The aim of my thesis is to examine potential social welfare impacts of introducing a GM banana in order to illustrate the relevance of socioeconomic analyses for supporting biotechnology decision-making and in particular the importance of consumer perceptions but also for contributing to the development and implementation of biosafety regulations. I present a general approach using GM banana as an example, while assuming the GM banana has passed standard food and biosafety safety assessments, i.e. can be considered to be safe. I explore the benefit-cost trade-offs of its introduction and the farmers’ and consumers’ willingness to pay for the technology and the end product. In the study I present a framework for considering concerns about genetically modified crops within a socioeconomic analysis of GM crops, using real options and choice experiment approaches. The approaches relate the economic benefits to consumers’ concerns. The results show that the introduction of GM bananas would be desirable for the Ugandan society as a whole, mainly benefit poor rural households and would merit policy support. Nevertheless, if such a GM banana is introduced its introduction may result in strong opposition from the opponent segment of the population, which is composed of mainly urban consumers with an on average higher education and income. Interestingly and in contradiction to common wisdom only providing additional information about the technology and its safety will not result in higher acceptance. Based on this case study biosafety regulators would need to consider these socioeconomic effects before a decision to introduce a GM banana is made. However, the decision to consider socioeconomic impacts for other GM crops elsewhere depends on the crop and the country. The research methodology in this thesis provides the basis for assessing other GM crops as well.

KW - bananen

KW - musa

KW - bioveiligheid

KW - genetische modificatie

KW - genetische transformatie

KW - sociale uitkeringen

KW - houding van consumenten

KW - consumenten

KW - consumentenvoorkeuren

KW - kosten

KW - gewassen

KW - uganda

KW - bananas

KW - musa

KW - biosafety

KW - genetic engineering

KW - genetic transformation

KW - social benefits

KW - consumer attitudes

KW - consumers

KW - consumer preferences

KW - costs

KW - crops

KW - uganda

M3 - internal PhD, WU

SN - 9789085856108

PB - S.n.

CY - [S.l.

ER -