On levies to reduce the nitrogen surplus: the case of Dutch pig farms.

P. Fontein, G. Thijssen, J. Magnus, J. Dijk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Pig farms in the Netherlands pay a zero or low price for using the environment. As a consequence, the environment is overused. The Dutch government wants to reduce the emissions of nitrogen and phosphorus. Possible instruments are regulation and levies. In this study a levy on feed and a levy on the nitrogen surplus are investigated, by incorporating a bad output in the production model. The model is estimated using panel data of Dutch pig farms over the period 1975-1989. Levies on nitrogen turn out to be more cost-effective than levies on feed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)455-478
JournalEnvironmental and Resource Economics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1994


  • air pollution
  • environmental legislation
  • environmental policy
  • farm results
  • government policy
  • netherlands
  • nitrates
  • pigs
  • profitability
  • soil pollution
  • water pollution


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